Ryukyu Bugei 琉球武芸 | Research Workshop 研究工房

Web Name: Ryukyu Bugei 琉球武芸 | Research Workshop 研究工房






The book My Art and Skill of Karate presents the technical knowledge and original accounts imparted by famed Okinawa karate master Motobu Chōki (1870-1944). This translation was created in close cooperation with the author s grandson, Motobu Naoki sensei. It also includes a congratulatory address by the author s son, Motobu Chōsei sensei, the current head of the school. Moreover, this year marks the 150th anniversary of Motobu Chōki s birth. In other words, three generations of the Motobu family were involved in this new translation, connecting the history and tradition of karate from the 19th to 21th century. In addition to accounts about old-time karate masters in Okinawa, the work features thirty-four photos of Motobu performing Naihanchi Shodan, including written descriptions. Moreover, it includes twenty kumite with pictures and descriptions as well as five pictures of how to use the makiwara. Troubled about the future of his only son and heir, a royal government official of the Ryukyu Kingdom wrote down his ‘Instructions’ as a code of practice for all affairs. Written in flowing, elegant Japanese, he refers to a wide spectrum of artistic accomplishments that the royal government officials were ought to study in those days, such as court etiquette, literature and poetry, music, calligraphy, the tea ceremony and so on.The author, who achieved a remarkable skill level in wielding both the pen and the sword, also informs us about various martial arts practiced in those days. Translated from Japanese for the first time, from centuries-long puzzling seclusion the state of affairs surrounding an 18th century Okinawan samurai vividly resurrects in what is considered ‘Okinawa’s most distinguished literature.’Print edition:US|CA|UK|DE|FR|ES|IT| JPKindle edition: US | UK | DE | FR|ES|IT|NL|JP|BR|CA|MX | AU|INTable of ContentsOkinawan Samurai — The Instructions of a Royal Official to his Only Son.By Aka/Ōta Pēchin Chokushiki (auth.), Andreas Quast (ed./transl.), Motobu Naoki (transl.).5″ x 8″ (12.7 x 20.32 cm)Black White on Cream paper218 pagesFirst Printing: 2018ISBN-13: 978-1985331037ISBN-10: 1985331039Translated from Japanese for the first time! I think it is epoch-making that Quastsensei decided to translate the ‘Testament of Aka Pēchin Chokushiki,’ and not one of the famous historical or literary works such as theChūzan Seikanor theOmoro Sōshi. I believe this translation has significant implications for the future study of karatehistory and Ryūkyū history abroad. (Motobu Naoki, Shihan of the Motobu-ryū) It is one of THE most important primary sources for truly understanding the unabridged history of our arts first hand by a member of the very class of people who spawned Karate in the first place! (Joe Swift, Karateologist, Tokyo-based) I highly recommend this new work by AndiQuast as a MUST BUY book (Patrick McCarthy, foremost western authority of Okinawan martial arts, modern and antique, anywhere he roams) I m sure I m going to learn and enjoy this book. (Itzik Cohen, karate and kobudo man from Israel)❁ In the era of Old Ryukyu, a legendary warrior of Okinawan martial arts appeared on the center stage of the historical theatre. Due to his unique appearance and powerful physique—reminiscent of a wolf or a tiger—the people of that time called him Oni Ōshiro, or «Ōshiro the Demon.»Also known as Uni Ufugushiku in the Okinawan pronunciation of his name, he had been variously described as the originator of the original Okinawan martial art «Ti» as well as the actual ancestor of a number of famous Okinawan karate masters, such as Mabuni Kenwa and others.This is his narrative. Gleaned from the few primary sources available, which for the first time are presented here in the English language, the original heroic flavor of the source texts was kept intact.«I invoke the Gods, To quake heaven and earth, To let the firmament resound, And to rescue the divine woman—Momoto Fumiagari.»Get your copy now: ►US ►CA ►UK ►DE ►FR ►ES ►IT5 x 8 (12.7 x 20.32 cm)Black White on Cream paper94 pagesISBN-13: 978-1533486219 (CreateSpace-Assigned)ISBN-10: 1533486212BISAC: Sports Recreation / Martial Arts Self-Defense❁ by Andreas QuastThis is the true story of the seven virtues of martial arts as described by Matsumura Sokon. Considered the primary source-text of old-style Okinawan martial arts, the “Seven Virtues” are admired for their straightforward advice. Handwritten in the late 19th century by Matsumura, the most celebrated ancestor of karate, they are considered the ethical fountain and technical key to understand what can’t be seen.This work includes the rare photograph of the original handwritten scroll, approved by the Okinawa Prefectural Museum Art Museum as well as theowner of the scroll.It also shows the family crest of the Matsumura family, sporting the character of Bu. Get your copy now: US►UK►DE►FR►ES►IT►JP►CAMatsumura himself pointed out that the “Seven Virtues of Martial Arts” were praised by a wise man in an ancient manuscript, a manuscript that has remained obscure ever since. Now the ultimate source of this wondrous composition has been discovered and verified. Presented and explained here for the first time, it is not only the source of Matsumura’s “Seven Virtues of Martial Arts” In fact, it is the original meaning of martial arts per se.5 x 8 (12.7 x 20.32 cm)Black White on Cream paper80 pagesISBN-13: 979-8605143611BISAC: Sports Recreation / Martial Arts Self-DefenseMatsumura Sokon: The Seven Virtues of Martial Arts. By Andreas Quast, 2020.❁ A Stroll Along Ryukyu Martial Arts History Paperback – May 15, 2015by Andreas Quast (Author)Paperback edition: available at Amazon US ($14.99), Amazon UK (£9.79), Amazon Germany (EUR 14.97), CreateSpace eStore ($14.99), and at online and offline bookstores and retailers, as well as via public libraries and libraries at other academic institutions.Kindle edition also available: US, UK, DE, FR, ES, IT, NL, JP, BR, CA, MX, AU, INBased on his acclaimed previous studies, the author here presents a synopsis of the development of Ryukyu martial arts. The events described herein are all real, that is, they are all historical. Strolling along the chronology of martial arts of Ryukyu provenance, a large number of verified events are not only detailed, but also decorated with dozens of precious illustrations. As such A Stroll Along Ryukyu Martial Arts History is for martial arts practitioners as much as it is for aficionados of history and Asia. It simply provides a pristine ground to stand on for the practitioner who wishes to understand the primordial origins of Ryukyu martial arts.For those who read “Karate 1.0”: this new book here is a synopsis of Karate 1.0 plus the chronology (Part VII) without significant changes. It is an easier read without all the reasoning and footnotes, but instead with nearly 80 illustrations to make it more suitable for the general public, and not only academic people.Among the unique information that cannot be found anywhere else are also some of the illustrations. For instance, there is only one picture scroll that shows the Chinese investiture envoys (sapposhi) and their military retinue. Here, for the first time you might see how famous Kusanku actually might have looked like.❁Product Details (Paperback edition)Paperback: 180 pagesPublisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition (May 15, 2015)Language: EnglishISBN-10: 1512229423ISBN-13: 978-1512229424Product Dimensions: 7.4 x 0.4 x 9.7 inches OUT OF PRINT!The most comprehensive study on the parameters of primordial Karate, this work intrigues readers with rich detail and insights into these ancient combat traditions, the pride of Okinawa.KARATE 1.0: Parameter of an Ancient Martial Art. Düsseldorf 2013, by Andreas Quast.Karate 1.0 front coverPages: xxvii, 502 pp.Language: English.Hardcover binding in green linen material with gold foil stamping, size 8.25 x 10.75 (20.95cm x 27.31cm).Full-color dust jacket in matte finish.Inside: black and white printing on cream archival paper (60# weight). White exterior paper (80# weight).Forewords by Patrick McCarthy, Miguel Da Luz, Cezar Borkowski, Jesse Enkamp, Dr. Julian Braun, Soke Leif Hermansson, and Dr. phil. Heiko Bittmann.All copies ship from the United States.Price: $75.00.Read the review by the experts:Mike Clark s blog,Mario McKenna s blog,Martial Arts Library,Nittany Shotokan Karate-do,IkigaiWay blog,AND check out the huge preview: Karate 1.0: PreviewAm 08. November 1995 las ich in dieser Kolumne Herrn Nakazatos Artikel Kata 型 oder Kata 形? Erwägungen über die Konzeption des Okinawa Karate , ich bin jedoch bezüglich Herrn Nakazatos dort formuliertem Standpunkt gegensätzlicher Ansicht.Herr Nakazato vertritt die Meinung, dass das Schriftzeichen für die kata des Karate kata 型 ist. Als Grundlage seines Standpunkts führt er an, dass in Okinawa für die kata des Karate seit alten Zeiten her das Schriftzeichen kata 型 verwendet worden ist, und nicht kata 形 . Aus welcher Literatur dies stammen soll wünscht man sich zu erfahren.Als nächstes führt er die Verwerfung des Schriftzeichens kata 型 und dessen Änderung zu kata 形 an, was vom Japanischen Karate Verband (JKF) in einem Rundschreiben bekannt gegeben worden sein soll. Dieses Rundschreiben wurde jedoch vom japanischen Ministerium für Erziehung und Unterricht veröffentlicht.Als Vergleich mit dem erwähnten Vorgang der Änderung des Schriftzeichens zog Herr Nakazato Sprichwörter heran, nämlich eine Verordnung jagt die andere , bzw. ein Befehl vom Morgen wird am Abend widerrufen . Bereits vor zwanzig Jahren jedoch schrieb ich in meinem Buch das in Frage stehende Schriftzeichen als kata 形, und folge dabei auch heute noch keinesfalls blind den Meinungen anderer Leute.Ferner zog Herr Nakazato die japanischen Wörterbücher Kōjien und Kokugo Jiten heran, woraus er entnahm, dass kata 型 die Standardmethode zur schriftlichen Angabe in den kämpferischen Weg-Künsten (budō) und den darstellenden Künsten (geinō) u. Ä. sei. Demgegenüber beschreibe kata 形 hingegen a) die äußere Erscheinung einer Form, b) die äußere Form im Gegensatz zur deren innerer Substanz oder Funktion, c) eine Form im Sinne einer Formsache, einer Formalität, einer äußeren Form. Ich ermittelte dazu selber sorgfältig in Wörterbüchern, denen ich entnahm, dass kata 形 standardisierten Verhaltensformen und Methoden in den kriegerischen Künsten (bujutsu) und bei Aufführungen (engei) entspricht, während es sich bei kata 型 um eine oberflächliche, sich an die Form haltende Angelegenheit handelt, bei der die charakteristischen Merkmale aus der Form selber stammen und bei der kein individueller Charakter o. Ä. vorgesehen ist.Mit anderen Worten, wenn kata 型 des Allerwichtigsten entbehrt, für was für eine Sache soll ich es dann halten?Herr Nakazato schrieb auch verschiedene Erörterungen bezüglich der Richtigkeit von kata 型 und kata 形 im Zusammenhang mit der Nihon Kendō Kata (Die kämpferischen Formen des japanischen Kendō) und der Nihon Jūdō Kata (Die kämpferischen Formen des japanischen Jūdō). Diese Nihon Kendō Kata und Nihon Jūdō Kata wurden im Jahre 1911 auf Anfrage des Ministeriums für Erziehung und Unterricht gegründet, von verschiedenen Schulen der Schwertkunst (kenjutsu) und der unbewaffneten Kampfkunst (jūjutsu), die noch aus der ausgehenden Tokugawa-Zeit stammten und damit einen großen Beitrag zur Leibeserziehung an den Schulen leisteten.Kürzlich teilte das Ministerium für Erziehung und Unterricht dem Japanischen Karate Verband (JKF) gegenüber seine Besorgnis mit, dass die kata des Karate-dō und des Kobudō keine kata 型 seien, sondern kata 形, was beim Training zu berücksichtigen sei, und des Weiteren, dass die Kreise des Karate und Kobudō Japans dabei seien, das Herz (kokoro) als die Essenz des Kriegerischen (bu) zu vergessen und stattdessen den philosophisch-moralischen Pfad (dō) popularisieren. Dies sollten wir uns in aller Bescheidenheit zu Herzen nehmen.Zurück zum Hauptthema: Der allerwichtigste Grund, weshalb ich nicht kata 型, sondern kata 形 verwende, liegt in dem Schriftzeichen kata 形 selbst. Dieses Allerwichtigste liegt in dessen Bedeutung, sich durch Anstrengung zu entwickeln, während es einen Rückschritt bedeutet, das Herz (kokoro) zu verringern. Das Schriftzeichen kata 型 transportiert dieses Gebot nicht.Wörterbüchern entsprechend handelt es sich bei kata 形 um charakteristische Merkmale, die daher stammen, dass man sich an die Form hält, was keinen individuellen Charakter beinhaltet. Dies ist nicht das Allerwichtigste an sich, sondern nur eine Angelegenheit, die sich aus dem Allerwichtigsten ableitet. Bei der Kopie eines Buches beispielsweise ist die physische Kopie lediglich substanzieller, materieller Herkunft, welche den wichtigsten inneren Teil, die Seele, nicht wiederzugeben vermag. Bei der Kultur der Überlieferung der verschiedenen Arten der Kriegskünste handelt es sich um dasselbe Prinzip: Nur aus dessen korrekter Weitergabe, unmittelbar durch einen Meister, und mit einer aus dem körperlichen Kontakt herstammenden Erkenntnis kann ein unverfälschtes Original erneut entstehen. Das Original ist keinesfalls durch Worte oder Schriftstücke lehrbar. Im Zen werden auch die Ausdrücke furyū monji (Erleuchtung kann nur durch unmittelbare Kommunikation von Herz zu Herz unterrichtet werden) und kyōge betsuden (Übermittlung von Lehren ohne Abhängigkeit von Sutras oder anderen Schriften, d. h., von Person zu Person) gelehrt. Diese Ausrücke bedeuten, dass ohne den Kontakt von Herz zu Herz eine unverfälschte Unterweisung nicht möglich ist.Entsprechend sollte man sich auch in der Unterweisung in der traditionellen Kultur Okinawas auf die historische Tatsache besinnen, dass die Vereinheitlichung der japanischen kriegerischen Künste (bujutsu) hin zu den jetzigen kata 形 der kämpferischen Weg-Künste (budō) die Quintessenz der modernen japanischen Kampfkünste (budō) auf eine höhere Stufe erhob. Dies ist die versteckte Logik hinter der Argumentation des Ministeriums für Erziehung und Unterricht. Die kata des Karate und Kobudō von Okinawa sind nicht kata 型, sondern kata 形. So lange ich lebe werde ich das Schriftzeichen kata 形 beibehalten und lege mit festem Herzen das Gelübde ab, mich mit aller Kraft der Schaffung des prächtigen Mekka des Karate und Kobudō von Okinawa zu widmen.Beitrag (Nagamine Shōshin), Naha-shi Makishi 3, 14, 1 Präsident des Seikai Matsubayashi-ryū Karate-dō RenmeiVizepräsident des Okinawa Karate-dōIn 1866, he entered the Kaiseijo of the Edo shogunate to study English. The Kaiseijo was an institution for western sciences established in 1862 and is one of the forerunners of Tōkyō University. 1871 he was among the first few graduates (at the then-called Daigaku Nankō). Since July the same year, he served as a teacher at Tōkyō Normal School (now the University of Tsukuba). While working as an interpreter for the physical education teacher George Adams Leland (1850-1924), who came from the United States in 1878, he studied physical education and learned about the importance of physical exercise. In 1878, he became a teacher at the Taisō Denshūjo (National School of Gymnastics, 1878-1886), also founded by Leland as an institution for the education of physical education teachers.1886, the Tōkyō Normal School absorbed the National School of Gymnastics, and from 1886 he served as an associate professor at the Tōkyō Higher Normal School. In 1885, he published a play instruction book for children, The Method of Outdoor Games (Kogai Yūgi-hō), together with Tanaka Seigyō, a graduate and teacher at the National School of Gymnastics. This book introduces about 21 games. In 1887, he published The Method of Regular Gymnastics (Futsū Taisō-hō). In it, Tsuboi proposed a theory of physical education that combines rationalistic light exercise (regular physical exercise, futsū taisō) and naturalistic play, and discussed the necessity of adding physical exercise as a compulsory subject at school. Since 1890 he served as a professor at Tōkyō Higher Normal School and Tōkyō Women s Normal School (now Ochanomizu Women s University), and the Physical Exercises Institute of the Physical Education Association of Japan (now Nippon Sport Science University). In 1896 he assumed office as the director of the Tōkyō Higher Normal School football club founded the same year (now: University of Tsukuba Football Club).In 1900, he studied abroad in England together with painter Kuroda Seiki (1866-1924) and composer Taki Rentarō (1879-1903) and returned to Japan the following year. He brought back official table tennis equipment from England, from which modern-style table tennis originated in Japan. In 1903, he wrote a preface to Association Football published by his student, Nakamura Kakunosuke (1878-1906; the founding father of Japan s soccer). This year he was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 5th Class. In 1909, together with Japanese physical educator Kani Isao (1874-1966), Tsuboi introduced dodge ball competition to Japan for the first time under the name of enkei deddobōru (circular dead ball). In the same year, he was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Rosette, 4th Class and retired as a professor of Tōkyō Higher Normal School and Tōkyō Women s Normal School. In April 1922, he became the honorary principal of Tōkyō Women s Physical Exercises Academy (now Tōkyō Women s College of Physical Education) but died in November. His grave is located in the Shinjoji in Bunkyō, Tōkyō. In 2006 he was entered into the Japan Soccer Hall of Fame.board member Ichikawa Sosui (Gōjū-ryū)board member Yamada Haruyasu (Shitō-ryū or Shikan-ryū)board member Nakayama Masaoboard member Matsui Yoshimitsuboard member Kogure Takehide (once chairman of Taira Shinken’s Ryūkyū Kobudō Hozon Shinkōkai)board member Aomatsu Fumioboard member Tsukada Hirooboard member Ichiki Kenjiboard member Takatō Tsutomuboard member Yokobori Noboru board member Maeda Yoshiakiboard member Uchiyama Chūya One of the very few technical terms of old-style karate still currently handed down in Okinawa is kōsā. The original designation koza changed over time and was mostly forgotten or simply replaced by modern Japanese terminology, namely by the terms ippon-ken (one-knuckle-fist), shōken (small knuckle), or keikōken (rooster-beak fist). That is, kōsā is a strike with the proximal interphalangeal joint of the index finger. The first reference to kōsā in both printed letters and photography is found in Motobu Chōki s book My Art and Skill of Karate (1933) as follows:How to clench the one-knuckle-fist (ippon-ken, kōsā) In Ryūkyū, since ancient times, the method gripping the one-knuckle-fist has become habitual even without words of explanation. How the one-knuckle-fist is clenched in accordance to its specific rule, and as is often done since childhood, is shown in the photo (Motobu Chōki: My Art and Skill of Karate, p. 16). According to the above, kōsā is an original old-style technique of karate widely known and practiced in Ryūkyū (Okinawa) since ancient times. BTW, Motobu wrote kōsā in katakana syllabary, so the original meaning is unknown. When looking into the etymology of kōsā, it might refer to a term that also appear in the Bubishi handed down in Okinawa. In the dialect of Fuzhou, this term is pronounced kau tso. It means as much as “spiking with the jujubedate,” or knocking with the jujubedate. As such it seems to be a designation that draws an imaginative analogy of the appearance of the Jujube date with the body part that mainly constitutes the technique of kōsā – i.e. the proximal interphalangeal joint of the index finger.BTW, I explained this etymology already in the 2016 edition of Bubishi: The Classic Manual of Combat by Patrick McCartyhy Sensei, but only a few people seem to have noticed. The question remains why so little Okinawan terminology has been handed down if there was an actual uninterrupted personal instruction over generations. Below, Paul Enfield Sensei shows kōsā applied to the Makiwara. The Enfields Paul and Michelle are among the top authorities for applied Okinawa karate and makiwara and other practices: The photo taken recently (2019) by my friendAkuseru Hainrihishows the Ryū-jin Gyōretsu no Zu 琉人行列之図, or Illustration of the Procession of Ryūkyūans (to Edo). These processions were called EDO-NOBORI.This EDO-NOBORI took place in 1850. In that year, prince Tamagawa Chōtatsu (1) and Nomura Uēkata Chōgi were dispatched to the shogunate in Edo by King Shō Tai as gratitude envoys for his enthronement. The procession comprised of ninety-nine participants. They carried the usual red Muchi-bō, spears and dragon halberds, which were mostly ceremonial. Also as usual, a large number of Satsuma forces accompanied them. I placed yellowe circles in the pic where you can see both Ryukyuan as well as Satsuman weaponry.The red circle in the top says Itosu Pechin, and there is also one Asato Satunushi. Because these are names of famous person in karate history, this spurred some interest. I first published about the 1850 embassy first in the 2006 IRKRS Journal and later described the procession in my Karate 1.0 (2013). Here s an excerpt: Following the Shimazu invasion of 1609, Ryūkyū was placed under suzerainty of the Satsuma fief and the shogunate government in Edo. On one hand, Ryūkyū was now obligated to send congratulatory envoys (keigashi) for the appointment or succession of a new Shōgun in Edo. On the other hand. in case a new king of Ryūkyū inherited the throne, a gratitude envoy (shaonshi) for the recognition of the new king was sent to Edo. These trips were called Edo-nobori, or going up to Edo . They generated a possibility of cultural exchange between Ryūkyū and Japan. The orders for dispatching both these types of envoys were issued by Satsuma, which also controlled and managed every little detail of the entire journeys. Between 1634 and 1850, there were eighteen such Edo-nobori. In the bōjutsu tradition of Taira Shinken, we find a rarely seen pole weapon: the Kushaku-bō 九尺棒 (ca. 273 cm long staff). Early sources do not mention it but say that The Okinawan bō is either Rokushaku (ca. 182 cm) or Sanshaku (ca. 90 cm) long: the first represents the method of the short pike, the other is the method of the sword (Okinawa Issen-nen Shi 1923: 333). No clear indications are found in literature as regards the manner in which kobudō originated. Many of the kata bear the names of the masters who designed them. Originally, there were a considerable number of kata for every kind of kobudō – that is, for every single old weapon and the methods associated with them. However, due to poorly developed systems of practice, and because teachers forgot some kata towards the end of their lives, and also for other reasons, it can today no longer be clearly verified how many kata actually once existed. Therefore, the following supplement lists the kata that still exist today in Okinawa. On an unnumbered leaf of Taira s book we find a photo entitled Various old weapons , on the bottom of which the Kushaku-bō is found: Finally, there is a description in chapter 4 (Taira 1964: 42), saying The staff called Bō in Okinawa is called Gùn in Chinese [from which the Okinawa Kon derives]. The Kon can be roughly classified into three kinds: Sanshaku (about 90 cm), Rokushaku (about 182 cm), and Kushaku (about 273 cm). In a posthumously published bequest of Taira is found a paper specifying the Types of Practices in the Ryūkyū Kobudō Hozon Shinkōkai (Taira 1997: 195-98). There, categorized under Other weapons , is found the following entry:In other words, an addition to the name has been made by adding Tsuki-bō (thrusting pole) to it. Therefore, the representative offensive technique of the Kushaku-bō appears to be thrusting. For a weapon of its length, this makes absolute sense. It may be compared to the European pike, the Japanese Yari or the Wing Tsun long-pole. Indeed, later it became generally accepted that Kushaku-bō (Tsuki-bō) belonged to the kata that derived their name from their most characteristic technical feature (see OKKBH 1994: 41; Nakamoto Masahiro and Tsuha Kiyoshi, in OKKJ 2008: 302).Inoue Motokatsu – one of Taira’s leading disciples – also mentioned the Kushaku-bō, providing us with another contextual perspective (Inoue 1972: 1-2): When speaking of Ryūkyū Kobudō, it is generally noted that in the Kobujutsu of Okinawa training is carried out with both long and short weapons. If, by way of example, one speaks of the type of weapon one trains with, then the Kun, the Kushaku-bō, and the Sanshaku-bō belong to the long weapons. Nakamoto Masahiro also mentioned it in his list of Kata of Bōjutsu Preserved in Today s Okinawa (Nakamoto 2007: 92), and there are more and more works that adopt it.As shown above, the term Kushaku-bō (Tsuki-bō) appeared in various literary sources since Taira Shinken wrote about it in 1964. The term also appears otherwise, such as in this kata list once written by Akamine Eisuke ( see pic 3). Actually, in the new Shimbukan dōjō of Akamine Hiroshi sensei, a Kushaku-bō wrapped in a soft case leaned on the dōjō’s front side between at least 2010 and 2012 ( see pic 4, featuring Akamine sensei doing Sai kata). I never saw it being used, though and it is unclear to me whether it had actually been handed down intact or if it is a broken tradition (jitsuden 失伝). I’d like to note that research about kinds of Okinawan bōjutsu appears to be a cumulative matter, with ever more kata and ever more weapons added to the syllabus during the recent century. As shown in the beginning of this short work, the Okinawa Issen-nen Shi (1923: 333) just spoke of two kinds of Okinawan bō, namely either Rokushaku (ca. 182 cm) or Sanshaku (ca. 90 cm). Forty years later, Taira Shinken roughly classified three kinds of bō as Kushaku, Rokushaku, and Sanshaku. A little less than fifty years later the general consensus had expanded again, saying that the kinds of bō can be divided into the following lengths: ca. 91cm, ca. 1.21m, and ca. 1.82m. In addition, there are special lengths of ca. 2,42m and ca. 2,73m (OKKJ 2008: 317). And by this we get to one of the core issues of Okinawa kobudō: While the term kobudō in Japan is clearly defined and strictly reserved for old martial arts established prior to the Meiji Restoration (1868), in Okinawa, there is no such differentiation. Instead, the term kobudō in Okinawa is used for all kinds of weaponry, kata, and practices without any distinction being made as regards their tradition as being old kobudō (pre-1879), modern kobudō (1879-1945), new kobudō (post 1945, even though they incorporate older techniques), creative and fiction kobudō, festival and entertainment kobudō, karate kata with kobudō weapons , or even any ad-hoc performance made up on the spot. Like this, the arsenal of weapons and techniques in Okinawa kobudō grows and grows and grows, sometimes things are forgotten and instead new developments are added, and it is getting more and more difficult to differentiate between them and to categorize them according to a date of actual establishment and the actual source.And just like in this case of the Kushaku-bō, every time we attempt to analyze a specific matter related to Okinawa kobudō, we sooner or later approach the core issue that the term kobudō for Okinawa has never been clearly defined.Note the calligraphy in the upper middle of the photography. It shows the phrase “a handless man boxing” (無手人行拳), read from right to left. The phrase was taken from “The Quiet Hermitage”, a Chinese collection of 100 Zen Buddhist theoretical problems (Koan). The phrase in question is found in No. 48, where the issue of “Vimalakirti s Non-duality” is related to. It uses the comparisons of „a handless man boxing“ and „a tongueless man speaking.“Apparently, here it had been interpreted in a Karate sense as “a bare-handed (unarmed) man boxing.”The photograph was taken at the Tokyo residence of Funakoshi Gichin in 1936 to discuss the then forthcoming publication of Nakasone Genwa’s new book, “Karate-do Taikan” (1938).The photo was later published in “Karate-do Ichiro” (1956) by Funakoshi Gichin. The persons in the photo are, from left to right: Toyama Kanken (Shudokan), Otsuka Hironori (Wado-ryu), Shimoda Takeshi (Funakoshi’s disciple), Funakoshi Gichin (Shotokan), Motobu Choki (Motobu-ryu), Mabuni Kenwa (Shito-ryu), Nakasone Genwa (Karate researcher), Taira Shinken (Ryukyu Kobudo).The calligraphy was brushed by Yashiro Rokurō (1860–1930, admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and Navy Minister). In a memorandum, Tokuda Antei mentioned Yashiro as follows: If I remember correctly it was in my 5thyear at middle school [i.e. in 1910] when famous rear admiral Yashiro visited our school and he was astonished by our amazingly developed physique and he said that at some point in the future he will try to have it [karate] adopted by the central government. In Japanese martial arts, including OkinawaKarate, the personal lineage of instruction is of utmost importance. It is soimportant that it is considered a standalone criterion for the authenticity ofa person and his style.Sometimes technical expertise is assumedsimply because a person has a specific personal genealogy. On the other hand, apersonal lineage is sometimes assumed simply because a practitioner hasexcellent technical skills. However, technical expertise and personal lineageare not necessarily causal. What remains is the utmost importance of being ableto date back a personal lineage to a founder, or otherwise as far aspossible. However, there are frequently technical andgenealogical inconsistencies, or otherwise different information about a lineage,depending on whose story you hear or read. Such cases have been the topic ofmany discussions for decades now. Usually it is a “proxy bout” in which peoplebelonging to one or the other group involved argue about who is right and whois wrong. All kinds of arguments and sources are used, such as hearsay of thekind “Sensei xy said….,” or “I have heard that….,” etc.pp. Then, there areinterviews, sometimes translated to English. Then there is comparative analysisof techniques, references to books, personal experiences, and many others. Amongthese arguments, there is one that is regularly missing. Namely, that a personcannot state who his teacher was. This is so obvious, it hurts.Why would a person not be able to claim a teacher’s name in his official CV? There are some personal reasons, such as they got mad at each other, or there was a fight. Or a student became progressive and self-important or earned a lot of money, but his master didn’t approve. A person might never want to think of or mention another person s name for such reasons. For example, a teacher and a student have been together for many years. The student moves to the US and becomes famous and earns a lot of money, but he changed the techniques to suit his target audience, and also grades himself – lets say – 8th dan, while actually he was only 4th dan. His sensei disapproves and gets mad at him. How could the student explain that he simply changed the techniques to his likes? He cannot. Instead, he withholds certain genealogical informations, for example, from whom he actually learned the techniques; Because then everybody could easily compare and see what has been done. At the same time, he creates a narrative. Back home he finds some other people who are also unhappy with the situation, so they form a group with common objectives. This is easy to understand and probably happens all the time. Or a person uses a specific term from one sensei Ti, Tomari-te, Tuidi etc. for a certain system of techniques, but sensei disapproves and tells him I only taught you 1/3 of it! So that person, because he already told everybody he is original heir, has to look for a story that explains it without mentioning that teacher. But there are also formal reasons, and here we need to remember we are talking about Japan, or Okinawa. There are unwritten rules. A person might be “released” or expelled from a school for various reasons, often profane. Maybe he didn’t pay fees. Maybe he withheld income from karate teaching that was supposed to go to the association. Maybe he demanded a higher dan. Maybe he attacked the sensei. Maybe he was convicted of a crime? Here’s the point: If the person is expelled in a semi-formal or formal way and for whatever reason, he cannot use the name of the sensei anymore. He cannot claim I have studied with sensei XY for 20 years, even if it is true. Since his livelihood is at stake and since he certainly will not stop doing karate every day! he has to find a solution to continue, a story or narrative which might be completely or partly true. But neither the sensei (or dojo / association) who kicked the student out, nor the student himself will ever discuss this publicly. It is probably considered an impertinence in Japan, it is a taboo. At best, there are “rumors.” But in the West, we don’t think that way. Therefore, especially in social media we often openly discuss such matters. In the eyes of Japanese / Okinawans, this might be considered impertinent. But for us it is rather normal. It is a cultural difference. Like that, we have seen this issue for decades, where Japanese / Okinawans invent new names for kata and styles, create the wildest genealogies, rename things and seek teachers to support them, grade them and lend their name to the cause, team up with other rogues etc. just to evade their Japanese cultural obsession with genealogy and personal tradition. And to bypass the issue of being basically prohibited to use the name of a certain teacher or school within their genealogy. It seems that Higashionna Kanryō trained Sanchin as a technique to acquire skill. Miyagi on the other hand thought there was already enough practice of kaishu-gata, but heishu-gata were lacking. He began to aim at physical education and martial arts in the modern era (=Imperial Japan) and he revised Sanchin to serve as the fundamental kata (kihon-gata) of Gōjū-ryū. And he made it into a technique of training the mind rather than to acquire skill (of which there was already enough in all the kaishu-gata). Looking at karate in Okinawa, I suspect that there is still a slight inclination towards neglecting the heishu-gata (form of closed techniques), but I wonder, how about that? Therefore, because the fundamental technique remained undetermined, and no matter how excellent the techniques of the kaishu-gata (form of open techniques) may be, it is inevitable that it [karate] has to be completed by taking the final step [i.e., adding more heishu-gata]. (From: Miyagi Chōjun: Karate-dō Gaisetsu. Kihōin Shozō, 1934; pp. 5-6. Translation by AQ) Is there an old and a new version of Ānankū? In his book on kata, Nagamine Shōshin included a short paragraph about the original creator and the characteristics of each kata. Below is my English translation of the short Japanese entry (Nagamine 1975: 234). “Ānankū. This [kata] was created by a past master, but this creator is unknown. The characteristics of this kata are many zenkutsu chūdan-zuki (mid-level thrusts in forward-bent stance). It is a short kata with a straight line as its enbusen (route of martial performance).” While Ānankū of Matsubayashi-ryū is short and has a medium level of technical difficulty, it is a unique kata. It includes some signature techniques reminiscent of Chintō, such as the open-handed cross-block, or the rather specific abdomen toe-kick, which was a specialty of Arakaki Ankichi. In any case, while the open-handed cross-block with tow-kick is a snapshot-similarity with Chintō, it clearly has a different entry and exit than it has in Ānankū, and is, therefore, a mere punctual concordance. Nagamine Sensei did not say from whom he learned Ānankū, but only that it was created by a past master and that this master is unknown. The above is interesting because people from other schools have tried to make sense of Matsubayashi-ryū s Ānankū, unsuccessfully I might add. They claim that this Ānankū is a creation by Nagamine Sensei himself. I think this claim is embryonic and without merit. This is because Nagamine Sensei in 1975 wrote that Ānankū was created by a past master and that this master is unknown. The other Ānankū according to a narrative by the Seibukan was created by Kyan. Or, it was taught by Kyan to Shimabukuru Zenryo. Or, in an older narrative by the same school, Kyan learned it from a Chinese person in Taiwan. Or, as it was often the case in the postwar era, the kata was actually created by a student and retrospectively ascribed to a famous person and a corresponding narrative provided to it. BTW, when did this Ānankū first appear in (any kind of) record? It seems 1969 in an Okinawa Times article. This Ānankū is not a unique kata. Rather, it is a simple mixture of combos taken from other kata and put together on some enbusen. Below I have added the morphological analysis of Ānankū and the kata the individual combos were taken from. opening gesture (standard gesture for kata in Seibukan) 1. left Shutō-uke / Neko-ashi-dachi 45° to left front (typical karate, for example, in Pinan Shodan, Kūsankū)2. right Shutō-uke / Neko-ashi-dachi 45° to right front (typical karate, for example, in Pinan Shodan, Kūsankū)3. left Uchi-uke / Renzoku Gyaku-/Choku-tsuki in Zenkutsu -dachi 90° to the left (as in Seisan)4. right Uchi-uke / Renzoku Gyaku-/Choku-tsuki in Zenkutsu -dachi 90° to the right (as in Seisan)5. Same as opening gesture (standard gesture for kata in Seibukan)6. right Uchi-uke left Jōdan-uke (as in Passai)7. Both-handed mid-level scissor strike (as in Passai)8. Right choku-zuki (as in Passai)9. Left Uchi-uke / Renzoku Gyaku-/Choku-tsuki / right Mae-geri / Gyaku-zuki (as in Gojūshiho)10. Right Uchi-uke / Renzoku Gyaku-/Choku-tsuki / left Mae-geri / Gyaku-zuki (as in Gojūshiho)11. Right Mawashi Enpi-uchi (Kūsankū)180° turn12. left Gedan-barai13. Right Choku-zuki14. Right Uchi-uke, step left foot forward in Bensoku-dachi / right Mae-geri and place right foot to front / right Gedan-barai / left Gyaku-zuki / right Uchi-uke (as in Seisan)180° turn15. Right Shutō-uke (typical karate, for example, in Kūsankū, Rōhai)16. (right foot back) left Shutō-uke (typical karate, for example, in Kūsankū, Rōhai)End gesture (standard)BTW, there is Sunabe Shozen, who in a karate magazine interview said he was a student of Kyan Chōtoku and that Kyan actually taught an Ānankū Shō and an Ānankū Dai. While I believe that he is the only person who ever said so, this would explain the existence of different Ānankū today. On the other hand, you cannot trust karate magazines, because they are just advertising brochures of the affiliated karate organizations and their narratives. In any case, Ānankū of Matsubayashi-ryū is truly unique in technical content and enbusen and it is the oldest extant version of Ānankū that otherwise has not been handed down within the Okinawa Karate circles. Seen from this perspective, Ānankū of Matsubayashi-ryū is unique in history.

TAGS:琉球 工房 Bugei 

<<< Thank you for your visit >>>

Websites to related :
The Texas Observer - Fearless Re

  Civil Rights A Monumental UndertakingProtests to remove racist statues and iconography are part of a larger effort to reframe Texas history. Health Ca


  信用金庫ってなに? 信用金庫は、地域に生まれ、地域と共に生きる金融機関です。 専門性や業界ネットワークを生かしながら、お客様の課題解決をサポートし、お客

Legal Database | Australian Ta

  Our commitment to youWe are committed to providing you with accurate, consistent and clear information to help you understand your rights and entitlem

Travel Agency Tour Operators –

  SHARAVANA C NGLOBAL COATINGS "It was a wonderful experience during our recent trip to Thanjavur and nearby temples. It was a last minute information a

The International Law Firm of Wi

  Director of Learning Development Julia Mercier discusses Winston University. Hiring Committee Co-Chair Bill O’Neil discusses what sets Winston apar

NPI Lookup | National Provider

  This is a very rare situation. Please consider revision to your search query . If you think there is a problem and search results must exist, please l

Medical Intensive Care Nursing

  Section 2 -Critical CareConcepts Section3 - Cardiologyin Critical Care Section4 -Pulmonary Concepts in Critical Care Section5 -Hemodynamics in Critica

Welcome to DeskDemon US

  10 Things To Avoid Saying In A Performance Review A performance review allows an opportunity for construction, engineering or environmental companies

Empowering Your Teams to Grow -

  Resource Center All the info you need to grow your company. Empower your sales team with data and insights to close deals.91% of organizations use CR


  Au cours du Paléozoïque (ère Primaire), l'histoire géologique du Morvan s'inscrit dans celle du Massif central français auquel il appartient. La


Hot Websites