btrfs Wiki

Web Name: btrfs Wiki






Stability status For feature status and stability, please refer to the Status page. The filesystem disk format is stable; this means that it is not expected to change unless there are very strong reasons to do so. If there is a format change, filesystems which implement the previous disk format will continue to be mountable and usable by newer kernels.The Btrfs code base is under heavy development. Not only is every effort being made to ensure that it remains stable and fast but to make it more so with each and every commit. This rapid pace of development means that the filesystem improves noticeably with every new Linux release so it's highly recommended that users run the most modern kernel possible.For benchmarks, it's recommended to test the latest stable Linux version, and not any older, as well as the latest Linux development versions. Also, it's recommended to test the various mount options such as different compression options.As with all software, newly added features may need a few releases to stabilize.If you find any behavior you suspect to be caused by a bug, performance issues, or have any questions about using Btrfs, please email the Btrfs mailing list (no subscription required). Please report bugs on Bugzilla. Features Linux has a wealth of filesystems from which to choose, but we are facing a number of challenges with scaling to the large storage subsystems that are becoming common in today's data centers. Filesystems need to scale in their ability to address and manage large storage, and also in their ability to detect, repair and tolerate errors in the data stored on disk. Major Features Currently Implemented Extent based file storage 2^64 byte == 16 EiB maximum file size (practical limit is 8 EiB due to Linux VFS) Space-efficient packing of small files Space-efficient indexed directories Dynamic inode allocation Writable snapshots, read-only snapshots Subvolumes (separate internal filesystem roots) Checksums on data and metadata (crc32c, xxhash, sha256, blake2b) Compression (ZLIB, LZO, ZSTD), heuristics Integrated multiple device support File Striping File Mirroring File Striping+Mirroring Single and Dual Parity implementations (experimental, not production-ready) SSD (flash storage) awareness (TRIM/Discard for reporting free blocks for reuse) and optimizations (e.g. avoiding unnecessary seek optimizations, sending writes in clusters, even if they are from unrelated files. This results in larger write operations and faster write throughput) Efficient incremental backup Background scrub process for finding and repairing errors of files with redundant copies Online filesystem defragmentation Offline filesystem check In-place conversion of existing ext2/3/4 and reiserfs file systems Seed devices. Create a (readonly) filesystem that acts as a template to seed other Btrfs filesystems. The original filesystem and devices are included as a readonly starting point for the new filesystem. Using copy on write, all modifications are stored on different devices; the original is unchanged. Subvolume-aware quota support Send/receive of subvolume changes Efficient incremental filesystem mirroring Batch, or out-of-band deduplication (happens after writes, not during) Swapfile support Tree-checker, post-read and pre-write metadata verification Features by kernel version As part of the changelog you can also review features by kernel version Features Currently in Development or Planned for Future Implementation SMR (zoned block device) support DAX/persistent memory support The file/directory -level encryption support (fscrypt) News btrfs-progs v5.9 (Oct 2020) linux v5.9 (Oct 2020) Changelog Read about past releases in the separate Changelog page features by kernel version kernel changes for each release btrfs-progs changes for each release Documentation Guides and usage information Getting started — first steps, distributions with btrfs support Mount options FAQ — About the btrfs project and filesystem UseCases — Recipes for how to do stuff with btrfs SysadminGuide — A more in-depth guide to btrfs's concepts and a bit of its internals, to answer all those "but what is a subvolume?" kind of questions. Multiple devices – A guide to the RAID features of Btrfs Conversion from Ext3 and Ext4 or reiserfs Problem FAQ — Commonly-encountered problems and solutions. Gotchas — lists known bugs and issues, but not necessarily solutions. Original wiki documentation (obsolete, will be removed) restore and find-root — utilities to find and restore data from an unmountable filesystem Developer documentation Developer's FAQ — hints and answers for contributors and developers, general information about patch formatting Development notes — notes, hints, checklists for specific implementation tasks (eg. adding new ioctls) Code documentation — trees, source files, sample code for manipulating trees Data Structures — detailed on-disk data structures Trees — detailed in-tree representation of files and directories Btrfs design — design notes (possibly out of date in places) Multiple Device Support — design notes ENOSPC — Current ENOSPC design issues Design_notes_on_Send/Receive — notes from initial impelentation, protocol V2 updates draft Qgroups status quo - notes on some qgroups observations/pain points Debugging Btrfs with GDB Writing patch for btrfs Btree_Items - Mapping from Btrfs key to item-data Resolving_Extent_Backrefs - How back references are resolved to root owners Original COW B-tree: Source code in C that implements the COW B-tree algorithms repository. Written by Ohad Rodeh at IBM Research in 2006, and released under a BSD license. This is a reference implementation, that works in user space. Unmerged features In-band (write) time deduplication User notes on dedupe — User/tester notes for using in-band deduplication feature Source code download Btrfs source repositories describes purpose and contents, here are a few quick links: repository for kernel pull requests: git:// (gitweb) kernel development repository: git:// (web access) kernel development repository (mirror): git:// (web access) btrfs-progs development and release repository: git:// (web access) released tarballs of btrfs-progs: Wiki accounts, editing The wiki contributions are welcome! Please create an account and wait for approval (this is a necessary spam protection and we cannot remove it). You can try to catch some of the wiki admins on IRC (or ping user 'kdave' in a query) to expedite the account creation.The registration requires full name for account but it's not mandatory from our perspective. The wiki User and User talk pages are created automatically but removed after account is approved. If you want to use the pages, create them manually, they won't be deleted. Articles, presentations, podcasts Video: Deploying Btrfs at Facebook Scale by Josef Bacik at the Open Source Summit 2020 (2020-06-29) Video: btrfs is awesome, except when it isn't by Richard Brown at openSUSE Conferece 2018 (2018-05-25) Video: btrfs: The Best Filesystem You've Never Heard Of by poiupoiu at PhreakNIC 21 (2017-11-3) Video TUT91782 Getting the most out of the btrfs filesystem by Thorsthen Kukuk and Jeff Mahoney (SUSECON, 2017) Video: NYLUG Presents: Chris Mason on Btrfs (May 14th 2015) by Chris Mason at the 192nd meeting of the NYLUG Video: Why you should consider using btrfs ... like Google does. by Marc Merlin at 2015. talk slides Article: Bitrot and atomic COWs: Inside “next-gen” filesystems (ars technica, 2014/01) Article: Btrfs: Subvolumes and snapshots (, 2014/01) Article: Btrfs: Working with multiple devices (, 2013/12) Article: Btrfs: Getting started (, 2013/12) Article: Btrfs hands on: An extremely cool file system (ZDNet, 2013/11) Technical report: Visualizating Block IO Workloads. Section six shows a visual comparison of the IO patterns for BTRFS, XFS, and EXT4. Submitted to ACM Transactions on Storage, November 2013. Paper: BTRFS: The Linux B-Tree Filesystem describing the overall concepts and architecture, appeared in ACM Transactions on Storage, August 2013. Includes a detailed comparison with ZFS. There is a free ACM authorized link, from O. Rodeh's [1] page. Otherwise, try IBM Research link Historical resources Links to old or obsolete documentation, articles. Kept for historical reasons. Stuff that's more than 3 years old. Articles, presentations, podcasts Article: A Beginner's Guide To Btrfs (2012-11-26) Article: How I Use the Advanced Capabilities of Btrfs by Margaret Bierman with Lenz Grimmer (2012-08-11) Article: How I Got Started with the Btrfs File System for Oracle Linux by Margaret Bierman with Lenz Grimmer (2012-07-11) Video: Btrfs Filesystem: Status and New Features by Chris Mason at the 2012 Linux Foundation Collaboration Summit (2012-04-05) Article Btrfs - The Swiss Army Knife Of Storage by Josef Bacik (2012-02) Video: I Can't Believe This is Butter! A tour of btrfs by Avi Miller at (2012-01-18) Article: A btrfs update at LinuxCon Europe on (2011-11-02) Podcast: Podcast with Chris Mason: Btrfs overview and status update (2011-07-13) Video: The Story So Far by Josef Bacik at LinuxCon Brazil (2010-08-31) Article: Weekend Project: Get Started with Btrfs (2010-10-15) Webcast: State of "Btrfs" File System for Linux by Chris Mason (2010-08-26) [email registration and flash required] Article: Valerie Aurora: A short history of btrfs (2009-07-22)

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