Web Name: CPAC






CPAC, established at the University of Washington in 1984, is a consortium of Industrial, National Laboratory and Government Agency Sponsors addressing multidisciplinary challenges in Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Process Control through fundamental and directed academic research.The Center for Process Analysis and Control was established in 1984 at the University of Washington as a National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC). CPAC is now a self-sustaining organization, with a successful consortium of sponsors recruited from all sectors of industry, as well as maintaining contact with several government agencies. The CPAC program can be summarized by three main components:The investigation of new measurement approaches based on the miniaturization of traditional instrumentation and the development of new sensors and non-traditional instruments based on fundamentally different sensing mechanisms, often not associated with traditional analytical chemistry techniquesthe investigation of issues related to the integration of process measurement with process modeling and control, including: process analyzer and process model robustness, process sampling, improved analyzer data treatments, and cross-cultural education between measurement and control communitiesThe improvement of mechanisms for interaction, collaboration, and communication of Center activities, research programs, government agencies, and the general measurement and control community. This activity has resulted in the creation of several working forums to increase the multi-disciplinary interaction.In addition, CPAC is also involved in a variety of initiatives for enhancing the development of measurement strategies that complement new directions in manufacturing technology, including: combinatorial approaches and high throughput screening for new materials discovery (ranging from catalysis to biological materials), issues of process optimization (including development and diagnostics), and the concept of just-in-time manufacturing. CPAC has an established track record in fostering academic/industrial/national laboratory interactions, which aim at bridging the gap between basic research and full-scale process/product development. The CPAC Rome, Italy (March) Workshop and CPAC Summer Institute (July) are part of this mission to provide continuing education opportunities in the areas of Process Analysis and Control. The workshops are held in an informal format, with technical presentations, and time allotted for both open discussion of the presentations and general brainstorming on topics that arise from this interaction. The overall focus of these gatherings, Topics in Process Analysis and Control, has from its onset placed special emphasis on developing trends in micro-instrumentation. The informal environment has created a successful format for bringing together measurement scientists and process engineers from industry, government, and academic institutions drawn from both CPAC and non-CPAC sponsors.The optimization of bio-reactors is of importance due to the value of industrial bio-technology, as well as the increasing interest in bio-fuels and bio-sustainability. CPAC is involved with several research projects to develop measurement tools that will complement existing monitoring methods and allow for studies to optimize bio-reactions and related process control.Several CPAC research projects are emphasizing how to enhance the value of micro-reactors for continuous flow chemistry - by incorporating sampling approaches along with micro-analytical and micro-sensor development. The data gathered from the real-time measurement can be used to develop models for effective process control.This has involved the development of a miniature, modular sample system. It is based on input from an ad-hoc group of end-users and equipment manufacturers who were looking to modularize and miniaturize process analyzer sample system components to simplify and standardize sample system design. The goals for NeSSITM were to facilitate the acceptance and implementation of miniature, modular sample systems that has resulted in an ISA SP76 standard and to promote the concept of smart analytical systems by closely integrating flow, pressure and temperature with analytical sensors.This initiative has been successfully completed via the development of communication systems influenced by the NeSSITM Generation II. The solution has been largely based on the incorporation of chemometric packages within a variety of commercial instrument systems.The charter of CPAC is to discover and develop new analytical and process methodologies for use as an integral part of manufacturing processes or product development. The program focuses on six applicable core research areas:Chemometrics & Process Control Algorithms specialized and automated mathematical and data processing methods specifically designed for extracting useful chemical and physical information from sensor data for both process monitoring and control, and rapid analysis;Sensors devices and instrumentation used to collect data from a process (e.g., discovery, process development, process control, and product development);Spectroscopy/Imaging the science of using electromagnetic energy, which is first transmitted through or reflected from a sample, to yield data relating to the physical, optical, and chemical properties of that sample;Chromatography the use of separation and detection instrumentation to determine the organic chemical composition of liquids, solvated solids, and gases;Continuous Flow Chemistry and Analysis continuous flow chemistry, sampling systems, assessment of online process analytics for reaction monitoring and development of control algorithms and theory;Process Control development of control system approaches which optimize the use of measurement science developments.CPAC is a multidisciplinary team of faculty, research staff, visiting scientists, and graduate students from a selection of universities. CPAC has recently supported research projects across a number of academic disciplines including: chemistry, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, forest resources, health sciences/genetics, food science, and mechanical engineering at selected universities including: University of Delaware, University of Maine, University of Minnesota, University of California at Davis, and the University of Washington. CPAC has also conducted collaborative research with several research institutes, including: the Norwegian Food Research Institute (MATFORSK) and Instituto di Chimica, Pisa, Italy. Universities are selected according to technologies of interest to sponsors and how they could enhance the CPAC technology programs.Past collaborations also have included researchers at the universities of Alberta, Arizona State, Arkansas, Clarkson, Michigan and Texas Tech, as well as Institut d'Automatique Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland and the University of Bergen, Norway.CPAC was established at the University of Washington in 1984 as an industrial/university consortium with the vision of developing process analytical chemistry as a sub discipline of analytical chemistry. Process analytical chemistry involves sampling techniques, real-time analysis (often involving a variety of measurement science instruments and sensors), and the advanced mathematics (chemometrics) used to evaluate data from the analysis. The broad range of industry and government organizations that have been members of CPAC demonstrates the wide interest in real-time analysis and the resulting data analysis. CPAC is multi-disciplinary, involving faculty from a number of departments in the colleges of Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Forestry, Health Sciences, and the Applied Physics Laboratory. Additionally, in an effort to expand the available academic talent, CPAC has funded projects at 9 different universities over the past decade, with examples and joint presentations of these interactions at the CPAC semi-annual meetings.The CPAC approach is to identify general areas of cross-industry needs and then establish strategic objectives to address them.Two of the historical industry problem-based objectives have been addressed are: 1) surface and interfacial characterization, and 2) multi-component mixture and multi-phase characterization. The CPAC strategic approach to industry problem areas involves developing versatile analytical systems that are tied to process control technology via effective interpretation of the analytical data.Supplementing traditional laboratory analysis of process stream samples with alternative real-time, on-line instrumental methods with complementary data analysis;Developing non-traditional measurement techniques that more closely support the operational and control aspects of process monitoring for predicting final product properties relative to more traditional compositional analysis.CPAC continues to serve as a focal point for development of the New Sampling and Sensor Initiative (NeSSI) that has become the ANSI/ISA standard 76.00.02 (A10) defining the footprint and flow geometry of components as well as the interconnect specifications that make up the platform. Using NeSSI as a sampling system for traditional process analyzers is now benefiting production operations and is becoming cost effective as more of the ‘NeSSI compatible’ components for sampling systems (e.g., valves, filters, and regulators) are made available.In addition to improving traditional sampling systems, NeSSI is an ideal template for demonstrating new micro-analytical devices. A NeSSI platform with analytical instrumentation will be valuable for monitoring process streams and a number of laboratory based applications. As micro-analytical technologies are developed or adapted to be NeSSI compatible, the number of potential applications for a portable analytical laboratory on a NeSSI platform should increase markedly. The fact that NeSSI meshes with many MEMS developments allows it to link with High Throughput Experimentation (combinatorial chemistry approaches) and micro-reactor systems for additional process optimization studies.NeSSI equipped with communication to control system and sensor-actuator managers will help the automation industry adapt to the smaller size and multi-variable capability necessary for emerging micro-sensors to a miniature/modular ‘smart’ manifold. This could fundamentally change the way industry does process development and optimization, as well as process analysis. With continued progress in the development of low power wireless communication it is expected that applications of NeSSI within processes and at remote on-site locations will grow.Since 1996 CPAC has conducted an annual Summer Institute that has focused on the value of miniaturization of analytical systems. It was predicted that this was the way of the future that would provide the needed flexibility to improve laboratory and process control operations. The CPAC Summer Institute has matured into a venue for gathering engineers, measurement scientists, micro-instrumentation vendors, and data handling specialists for brainstorming on how to merge micro-instrumentation developments with measurement and engineering needs. Recent themes of the Summer Institute have considered how micro-instrumentation can affect High Throughput Experimentation and Process Intensification. Process Intensification has gained importance as a means to reduce capital and operating expenditure. Micro-technology has been shown to be a way of achieving drastic reductions in resource use and waste generation while maintaining productivity as well as product quality.Information on the upcoming Summer Institute and reports from past Summer Institute sessions can be found on the CPAC web site. A book, based on the topics discussed at the 2004 Summer Institute has been published at the request of John Wiley Publishing Company. (Micro-Instumentation for high Throughput Experimentation and Process Intensification - A Tool for PAT. edited by M. Koch, K. VandenBussche, and R. Chrisman)High throughput experimentation and process intensification involve large numbers of small volume samples created for product development and process optimization studies. Combinatorial approaches have shown value in new product leads and now miniaturization of production unit operations is a cost effective way of gathering data for process engineering. The demand for miniaturized measurement devices, scanning sensor devices, and rapid data handling is growing. These analytical tools need to mesh with High Throughput Experimentation platforms as well as micro-reactors and other MEMS based developments. The Micro-Reactor platform is an effective approach because of enhanced mass and heat transfer capabilities.This initiative was formed as a partnership between analyzer vendors, chemometrics software vendors, and the manufacturing end-users for assisting the end-users of chemometrics in the appropriate product selection. An industry lead steering team is working with CPAC and used the CPAC web site as a vehicle to document needs and resources for COPA. Periodic status report sessions are held at CPAC member and annual IFPAC meetings.In response to the FDA Guidance on PAT (Process Analytical Technology) there is an increasing need for effective tools for developing and monitoring biological processes such as fermentation. Several CPAC industrial sponsors have assisted CPAC in the selection, operation, and maintenance of a fermentation test bed for the investigation of new measurement instrumentation and data analysis. A variety of measurements have been compared with the tradition instrumentation being applied to present fermentation processes. New sampling technology, including the NeSSI platform is being evaluated on the test bed.NeSSITM is a non-affiliated international ad hoc group composed of over 250 people (and growing) including end-users such as ExxonMobil, Chevron, Dow Chemical, and Eastman Chemical, as well as manufacturers of NeSSITM components such as ABB Analytical, Siemens, Fisher-Rosemount, Swagelok, Parker-Hannifin, CIRCOR and many others who are looking to modularize and miniaturize process analyzer sample system components. NeSSITM operates under the sponsorship and umbrella of CPAC (Center for Process Analytical Chemistry) at the University of Washington in Seattle.NeSSITM's origins can be traced to various CPAC Focus Group sessions and a Tutorial presented at the November 1999 CPAC Sponsor Meeting. The membership focus of NeSSITM has been on manufacturers who are willing to supply parts and components for this initiative as well as end-users who are willing to do in house testing. There are now several NeSSITM sampling manifold designs which conform (approximately) to the SEMI 1.5-in manifold. An ISA SP76 standard has been adopted.The NeSSITM Steering Team is an organizing group of enthusiasts that coordinate activities including meetings related to NeSSI™ development and applications.Standardisation, reducing design and engineering timeSimplified assembly, reducing manufacturing costsLess field infrastructure, reducing construction costsFaster, easier predictive maintenance, reducing technician timeRemote connectivity, reducing engineering support timeSmart diagnostics, improving maintenance efficiencyThe substrate provides the channels through which samples flow and the mechanical platform on which sample system components, sensors and analysers are mounted.The NeSSITM-bus provides networked connectivity to components and sensors mounted on the substrate.The Sensor Actuator Manager (SAM) is the interface between the NeSSITM-bus and EtherNet. It enables process measurements with their validity codes to be seen by a Distributed Contol System (DCS) and it enables maintenance-related data to be viewed from remote locations. SAM also includes smart functionality for advanced diagnosis of system health. Remote control of the sample system, for example valve switching is also available via the NeSSITM-bus and SAM.CANCELLED: March 2020 Rome Workshop due to novel coronavirus outbreak. The next Rome Workshop will be held in March 2021.CPAC / MK OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL: ROME WORKSHOP22 24 March 2021 | Rome, ItalyUtilization of New Concepts in Supporting the Demand for Sustainable Materials by Developing Next Generation Materials, as well as Exploring New Reaction Routes that Benefit from the Growing Use of Continuous Flow Monitoring and Control TechnologyA key enabler of the move to a Circular Economy will be process intensification which offers sustainable processing of lower volume distributed waste streams to generate a broad range of new platform chemicals including a growing list of biomass mass derived molecules. Using new catalyst in one pot and cascade chemistries, these new starting materials including nanomaterials are being converted to a range of new composites and materials with advanced properties. The 2020 Rome meeting will build on this theme of sustainable production and will focus on next generation materials.In addition, there will be an emphasis on exploring new reaction routes that benefit from the growing use of continuous flow technology and effective monitoring and control concepts. The evolution of flow microscale reaction technology has led to a wide range of process intensification developments in the various steps that result in the ability to rapidly evaluate and optimize new reaction routes as well as offering more cost-effective processing. The key next step is the integration of these unit operations into end-to-end optimized continuous processes.Online registration will be available soon. Please check back. Questions? Please contact Mel Koch or Nan Holmes.Mel Koch, CPAC and MK Optimization and Control LLCRay Chrisman, MK Optimization and Control LLCGiancarlo Cravotto, U. Turin, Italy; Claude De Bellefon, U. Lyon, France; Ludo Diels, VITO, Belgium; Frank Gupton, Virginia Commonwealth U., USA; Volker Hessel, U. Adelaide, Australia; Simone Maccagnan, Gimac Microextruders, Italy; Brian Marquardt, CPAC, U. Washington and MarqMetrix, USA; Peter Poechlauer, Patheon, Austria; Kurt VandenBussche, UOP, USA; Paul Watts, Nelson Mandela University, South AfricaThe CPAC Spring Meeting 2020 was cancelled and is combined with the 2020 Summer Institute.THEME 1: Next generation processing approaches to enable maximum efficiency in the production of pharmaceutics, chemicals, and biomaterialsTHEME 2: Expanding process understanding based on the use of sensors and data handling Enabling more efficient personalized medicine and complex process optimization of bio-based processes and petrochemical operationsThe event will be two morning Zoom meetings (July 21 and 22). We anticipate having short (15 minute) presentations and adequate time to discuss the presentations and how they relate to the themes.REGISTRATION FEE: $50 USDThe fee covers the costs of setting up and running the event.Registration Form Please complete the form at the MK Optimization and Control LLCMel Koch, CPAC | | 206 616 4869 or 206 992 1001Nan Holmes | | 206 484 4399The CPAC Spring Meeting 2020 is cancelled and will be combined with the 2020 Summer Institute.IA-1 Callis, James B., 'Spectrophotometers on a Chip,' unpublished manuscript, June 1983IA-2 Sanchez, Eugenio M. and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Tensorial Calibration: II – Second Order Calibration,' unpublished manuscript, 1984IA-3 Hager, Harold E., Robert D. Ruedisueli and Mark F. Buehler, 'The Use of Piezoelectric Crystals as Electrode Substrates in Iron Corrosion Studies: The Real-Time, In Situ Determination of Dissolution and Film Formation Reaction Rates,' Corrosion 42, 345 1986IA-4 Hirschfeld, Tomas B., James B. Callis and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Chemical Sensing in Process Analysis,' Science 226, 312–318 (1984)IA-5 Skoropinski, D. Bruce, James B. Callis and John C. Pfeffer, 'Simple, Compact Visible Absorption Spectrophotometer,' Analytical Chemistry 56:14, 2973–2974 (1984)IA-6 Callis, James B., 'The Center for Process Analytical Chemistry,' Newsletter of Analytical Laboratory Managers Association (ALMA), 5th Annual Meeting, Argonne National Laboratory, October 1985IA-7 'CO Detection by the Photo-Impedance Response of Semiconductor Film Sensors,' unknown status, 1985. (No longer available)IA-8 Simpson, Randall L. and Harold E. Hager, 'Electrochemical Analysis Using Angular Polarization Modulated ATIR Spectrometry and Flourometry,' Chemical Engineering Communications 38, 313–329 (1985)IA-9 Hager, Harold E., Glenn A. Escobar and Peter D. Verge, 'Real-Time Characterization of the Photoresist/Substrate Interface,' J. Appl Phys 5, 1 1986IA-10 Illman, Deborah L., James B. Callis and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Process Analytical Chemistry: A New Paradigm for Analytical Chemists,' American Laboratory, 8–10 December (1986)IA-11 Ruzicka, Jaromir, 'Flow Injection Analysis from Serial Assay to a New Concept of Measurement in the Chemical Laboratory,' Analytica Chimica Acta 179, 1–58 (1986)IA-12 Geladi, Paul and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS): A Tutorial,' Analytica Chimica Acta 185, 1–17 (1986)IA-13 Callis, James B., 'Trends in Chemical Microsensors and Ultraminiature Chemical Instrumentation,' Proceedings of the Texas A & M Chemistry Department Symposium: New Directions in Chemical Analysis, March 1985IA-14 Renzoni, G. E., E. G. Shankland, J. A. Gaines and James B. Callis, 'Determination of Alcohols in Gasoline,/Alcohol Blends by NMR Spectrometry,' Analytical Chemistry 57, 2864–2867 (1985)IA-15 Burns, David H., James B. Callis and Gary D. Christian, 'A Robust Method for Quantitative Analysis of Two-Dimensional (Chromatographic, Spectral) Data Sets,' Analytical Chemistry 58, 1415 (1986)IA-16 Illman, Deborah L., 'CPAC: An Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Process Analytical Chemistry,' presented at ANATECH 1986, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, April 22–24, 1986, and Trends in Analytical Chemistry (TRAC) 5:7, 164–172 (1986)IA-17 Skoropinski, D. Bruce, James B. Callis, J. D. Sheldon Danielson and Gary D. Christian, 'A Laser Videofluorometer System for Real-Time Characterization of High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Eluate,' Analytica Chemistry 58, 2831 (1986)IA-18 Pepich, Barry V., James B. Callis, David H. Burns, Martin P. Gouterman and David A. Kalman, 'Capillary Gas Chromatography, Pulsed Supersonic Jet, Fluorescence Excitation Spectroscopy for the Identification of Methylanthracenes in a Complex Environmental Sample,' Analytical Chemistry 58, 2825 (1986)IA-19 Burns, David H., James B. Callis and Gary D. Christian, 'Rank Annihilation of Two-Dimensional Data Sets When Only One Dimension is Known,' Analytical Chemistry 58, 2805 (1986)IA-20 Buchanan, Bruce R., Jonathan H. Perkins and David E. Honigs, 'Near-Infrared Used in Process Chemistry,' unpublished manuscript, 1986IA-21 Callis, James B., Deborah L. Illman and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Process Analytical Chemistry,' Analytical Chemistry, 59, 624A–631A (1987)IA-22 Erickson, Brice C., Jaromir Ruzicka and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Resolution of Chemical Species in Flow Injection Analysis by Using Self-Modeling Curve Resolution,' Analytica Chimica Acta 218, 303–311 (1989)IA-23 Callis, James B., 'Sensing Techniques for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control,' in Frontiers in Bioprocessing, edited by S. K. Sikdar, M. Bier and P. Todd, 185–194, Boca Raton: CRC Press,1990IA-24 Hou, S., N. Lawrence Ricker and Barry M. Wise, 'A Device for On-Line Measurement of Liquid Viscosity in Hostile Process Environments,' unpublished manuscript, 1990IA-25 Ricker, N. Lawrence, 'Multivariate Statistical Process Control: Analogy to the Kalman Filter,' unpublished manuscript, 1990IA-26 Seasholtz, Mary Beth, Randy J. Pell and K. E. Gates, 'Comments on the Power Method,' Journal of Chemometrics 4, 97 (1990)IA-27 Wise, Barry M., N. Lawrence Ricker, David J. Veltkamp and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'A Theoretical Base for the Use of Principal Component Models for Monitoring Multivariate Processes,' Process Control & Quality 1:1, 41–51 (1990)IA-28 Berman, Richard J., Gregory D. Clark, David A. Whitman and Gary D. Christian, 'Spectrophotometric Determination of Aniline by Flow Injection Analysis in a Nonaqueous Medium,' Microchemical Journal 39, 20–24 (1989)IA-29 Johnson, Edward L., 'Process Analytical Chemistry: A Balancing Act by Industry and Academe,' American Laboratory, November 1989IA-30A Miller, Charles E., Peter G. Edelman and Buddy D. Ratner, 'Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Polyether[urethane urea] Block Co-Polymers: I – Bulk Composition,' Applied Spectroscopy 44, 576 (1990)IA-30B Miller, Charles E., Peter G. Edelman, Buddy D. Ratner and Bruce E. Eichinger, 'Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Polyether[urethane urea] Block Co-Polymers: II – Phase Separation,' Applied Spectroscopy 44, 581 (1990)IA-31 Miller, Charles E. and Bruce E. Eichinger, 'Determination of Crystallinity and Morphology of Fibrous and Bulk Poly[ethylene terephthalate] by Near-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy,' Applied Spectroscopy 44:3, (1990)IA-32 Renn, Curtiss N. and Robert E. Synovec, 'Pointing Stability- Limited, Dual-Beam Absorbance Measurements by Position-Sensitive Detection,' Applied Spectroscopy 43, 1393–1398 (1989)IA-33 Renn, Curtiss N. and Robert E. Synovec, 'Single Optical Fiber, Position-Sensitive Detector Based Multiwavelength Absorbance Spectrophotometer,' Analytical Chemistry 62, 558–564 (1990)IA-34 Synovec, Robert E., Leslie K. Moore, Curtiss N. Renn and Darrell O. Hancock, 'New Directions in Process Liquid Chromatography,' American Laboratory 21, 82–87 (1989)IA-35 Wang, Yongdong, X. Zhao and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'X-ray Fluorescence Calibration with Partial Least Squares,' unpublished manuscript, 1989IA-36 Wise, Barry M., David J. Veltkamp, N. Lawrence Ricker and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts: An Example with Data from a Full Scale Process,' unpublished manuscript, 1989IA-37 Lorber, Avraham Y. and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Parsimonious Regression,' unpublished manuscript, 1991 (Not available for distribution)IA-37A Lorber, Avraham Y., Mary Beth Seasholtz and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Parsimonious Regression,' unpublished manuscript, 1991IA-38 Illman, Deborah L., James B. Callis and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Process Analytical Instrumentation: Sources of Inspiration – From Concept to Commercialization,' American Laboratory 19, 4–6 (1987)IA-39 Kowalski, Bruce R. and Mary Beth Seasholtz, 'Recent Developments in Multivariate Calibration,' Journal of Chemometrics 5, 129–145 (1991)IA-40 Whitman, David A., Mary Beth Seasholtz, Gary D. Christian, Jaromir Ruzicka and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Double-Injection FIA Using First-Order Calibration for Multicomponent Analysis,' Analytical Chemistry 63, 775 (1991)IA-41 Wise, Barry M. and N. Lawrence Ricker, 'The Effect of Biased Regression on the Identification of FIR and ARX Models,' American Institute of Chemical Engineers Meeting, November 1990IA-42 Seasholtz, Mary Beth and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'The Effect of Mean Centering on Prediction in Multivariate Calibration,' Journal of Chemometrics 6, 103–111 (1992)IA-43 Rahimi, Kambiz and Mani Soma, 'Switched Current A/D Conversion for Microsensor Applications,' unpublished manuscript, 1991IA-44 Sekulic, S. Sonja and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'MARS: A Tutorial,' Journal of Chemometrics 6, 199–216 (1992)IA-45 Seasholtz, Mary Beth and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'The Parsimony Principle Applied to Multivariate Calibration,' Chemometrics in Analytical Chemistry Conference (CAC-92), Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 14–17, 1992, Analytica Chimica Acta 277, 165–177 (1993)IA-46 Sekulic, S. Sonja, Mary Beth Seasholtz, Ziyi Wang, Bruce R. Kowalski, Samuel E. Lee and Bradley R. Holt, 'Nonlinear Multivariate Calibration Methods in Analytical Chemistry,' Analytical Chemistry 65:19, 835A–845A (1993)IA-47 Tauler, Roma, Bruce R. Kowalski and Sydney Fleming, 'Multivariate Curve Resolution Applied to Spectral Data from Multiple Runs of an Industrial Process,' Analytical Chemistry 65:15, 2040–2047 (1993)IA-48 Smilde, Age K., Yongdong Wang and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Theory of Medium-Rank Second-Order Calibration with Restricted-Tucker Models,' Journal of Chemometrics 8, 21–36 (1994).IA-49 Jorgenson, Ralph C., Sinclair S. Yee, Kyle S. Johnston and Bruce J. Compton, 'A Novel Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Fiber Optic Sensor Applied to Biochemical Sensing,' (abstract), for presentation at SPIE Biomedical Optics Conference, 1993IA-50 Tauler, Roma, Age K. Smilde, John M. Henshaw, Lloyd W. Burgess and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Multicomponent Determination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Using a Reaction-Based Chemical Sensor. 2. Chemical Speciation Using Multivariate Curve Resolution,' Analytical Chemistry 66:20, 3337–3344 (1994)IA-51 Smilde, Age K., Roma Tauler, John M. Henshaw, Lloyd W. Burgess and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Multicomponent Determination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Using a Reaction-Based Chemical Sensor. 3. Medium-Rank Second-Order Calibration with Restricted Tucker Models,' Analytical Chemistry 66:20, 3345–3351 (1994)IA-52 Dean, Thomas A., 'Materials For Near Infrared Instrument Standardization: Wavelength Standards, Stability and Diagnostic Information,' unpublished manuscript, 1994IA-53 Fateley, William G., Bruce R. Kowalski, Peter R. Griffiths, K. H. Norris and H. W. Siesler, 'Recognizing the Validity of Prior Art: Recent Patents Involving Electromagnetic Radiation,' Spectroscopy 11:5, 14–23 (1996). (Preprint title: 'The Tenets for Using Electromagnetic Radiation in Analytical and Structural Chemistry.’)IA-54 Eaton, Mark T. and N. Lawrence Ricker, 'Extended Kalman Filtering for Particle Size Control in a Fed-batch Emulsion Polymerization Reactor,' Proceedings 1995 American Control Conference (Seattle), 4 2697-2701 (1995)IA-55 Gamble, Lara, Linda S. Jung and Charles T. Campbell, 'Decomposition and Hydrogenation of Surface Ethoxys on TiO2 (110),' Surface Science 348, 1–16 (1996)IA-56 Holman, David A., Gary D. Christian and Jaromir Ruzicka, 'Simultaneous Kinetic and Spectral Resolution of Analytes by Solid Phase Spectrophotometry on Replaceable Columns,' (abstract), for presentation at FACSS Conference, Cincinnati, OH, October 1995IA-57 Holman, David A., Gary D. Christian and Jaromir Ruzicka, 'Kinetic and Spectral Resolution of Analytes by Solid Phase Spectrophotometry on Disposable Columns,' (abstract), for presentation at Pacifichem, Hawaii, HI, December 1995IA-58 Brodsky, Anatol M., 'Casimir Free Energy of a Spherical Cavity in a Dielectric Medium,' Journal of Mathematical Physics 38:10, 5127–5142 (1997)IA-59 Faber, Klaas M. and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Comment on a Recent Sensitivity Analysis of Radial Base Function and Multi-Layer Feed-Forward Neural Network Models,' Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems (ChemoLab) 34, 293–297 (1996)IA-60 Faber, Klaas M. and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Prediction Error in Partial Least Squares Regression: Further Critique on the Deviation Used in the Unscrambler,' Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems (ChemoLab) 34, 283–292 (1996)IA-61 Kowalski, Bruce R., 'A Missing Piece in the American Technology Transfer Puzzle,' Spectroscopy 11:7, 30–33 (1996)IA-62 Faber, Klaas M. and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Improved Estimation of the Limit of Detection in Multivariate Calibration,' Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry 357, 789–795 (1997)IA-63 Faber, Klaas M. and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Short Communication on Solving Generalized Eigenvalue Problems Using MATLAB,' unpublished manuscript, 1996IA-64 Faber, Klaas M., Avraham Y. Lorber and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Comments on 'Interrelationships Between Sensitivity and Selectivity Measures for Spectroscopic Analysis',' Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems (ChemoLab) 38, 89–93 (1997). (Preprint title, ' On the Relationship between Lorber's Multivariate Sensitivity and the Unscaled Variance Inflation Factor.’)IA-65 Lorber, Avraham Y., Klaas M. Faber and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Net Analyte Signal Calculation in Multivariate Calibration,' Analytical Chemistry 69:8, 1620–1626 (1997)IA-66 Faber, Klaas M., Avraham Y. Lorber and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Analytical Figures of Merit for Tensorial Calibration,' Journal of Chemometrics 11, 419–461 (1997)IA-67 Gamble, Lara J., Michael A. Henderson and Charles T. Campbell, 'Organofunctionalization of TiO2 (110): Trifluoropropyltrimethoxysilane Adsorption,' Journal of Physical Chemistry, B102, 4536–4543 (1998)IA-68 Mittermayr, Christian R. and Steven D. Brown, 'Robust Calibration with Respect to Background Variation,' unpublished manuscript, (1998)IA-69 Faber, Klaas M., David L. Duewer, Steven J. Choquette, Terry L. Green and Stephen N. Chesler, 'Characterizing the Uncertainty in Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Prediction of Mixed-Oxygenate Concentrations in Gasoline: Sample-Specific Prediction Intervals,' Analytical Chemistry, 70 (14), 2972–2982 (1998)IA-70 Dockendorff, Brian, David Holman, Jaromir Ruzicka and Gary D. Christian, 'Automated Solid Phase Extraction of Theophylline by Sequential Injection on Renewable Column,' Analyst, 35, 357–359 (1998)IA-71 Brodsky, Anatol M., Lloyd W. Burgess and Sean A. Smith, 'Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy,' Applied Spectroscopy, 52:9, 332A–343A (1998)IA-72 Homola, Jiri, Ivo Koudela and Sinclair S. Yee, 'Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Based on Diffraction Gratings and Prism Couplers: Sensitivity Comparison,' Sensors and Actuators, B 54, 16–24 (1999)IA-73 Homola, Jiri, Sinclair S. Yee and Gunter Gauglitz, 'Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review,' Sensors and Actuators, B 54, 3–15 (1999)IA-74 Lima, Lawrence R., III and Robert E. Synovec, 'Laser-based Dynamic Surface Tension Detection for Liquid Chromatography by Probing a Repeating Drop Radius,' Journal of Chromatography A 691, 195–204 (1995)IA-75 Luo, Yongyi, Rashed Al-Othman, Gary D. Christian and Jaromir Ruzicka, 'Flow/sequential Injection Determination of Gaseous Ammonia with a Glass Diffusion Denuder,' Talanta 42, 1545–1551 (1995)IA-76 Egorov, Oleg and Jaromir Ruzicka, 'Flow Injection Renewable Fibre Optic Sensor System. Principle and Validation on Spectrophotometry of Chromium(VI),' The Analyst 120:7, 1959–1962 (1995)IA-77 Young, Toby E. and Robert E. Synovec, 'Enhanced Surfactant Determination by Ion-pair Formation Using Flow-injection Analysis and Dynamic Surface Tension Detection,' Talanta 43, 889–899 (1996)IA-78 Peterson, Kristina L., Barry K. Logan, Gary D. Christian and Jaromir Ruzicka, 'Sequential-injection Extraction for Sample Preparation,' Analytica Chimica Acta 337, 99–106 (1997)IA-79 Anderson, Brian B., Anatol M. Brodsky and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy of Colloids and Suspensions,' Langmuir 13, 4273–4279 (1997)IA-80 Olson, Nels A., Robert E. Synovec, William B. Bond, Dana M. Alloway and Kristen J. Skogerboe, 'Dynamic Surface Tension and Adhesion Detection for the Rapid Analysis of Surfactants in Flowing Aqueous Liquids,' Analytical Chemistry 69, 3496–3505 (1997)IA-81 Kuhns, David, Anatol M. Brodsky and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Hydrodynamical Perturbation Effects in Sonoluminescence', Physical Review E 57:2, 1702–1704 (1998)IA-82 Shelley, Paul H., Karl S. Booksh, Lloyd W. Burgess, and Bruce R. Kowalski, 'Polymer Film Thickness Determination with a High-Precision Scanning Reflectometer,' Applied Spectroscopy, 50:1, 119–125, (1996)IA-83 Blair, L.W. Burgess, and A.M. Brodsky, 'Study of Analyte Diffusion into a Silicone-Clad Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensor by Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy,' Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 49, No. 11, 1636–1645 (1995)IA-84 McCarthy, Kathryn L. and Michael J. McCarthy, 'Extent of Mixing in a Kenics Static Mixer Using MRI, presented at the Institute of Food Technologists 1999 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, July 24–28, 1999IA-85 Cobb, Wesley N., Manoharan Meenaksh and Leonard J. Bond, 'Ultrasonic Techniques for On-Line, Real-Time Non-Invasive Measurement of the State of Mixing,' final report for CPAC funded research projectIA-86 Quigley, Wes W.C., Carlos G. Fraga, and Robert E. Synovec, 'Comprehensive LC x GC for Enhanced Headspace Analysis,' submitted to J. Microcolumn Separations, (1999)IA-87 McCarthy, Kathryn L., Michael J. McCarthy, and Youngsoo Lee, 'Mixing Platform: MRI as a Sensor System,' final report for CPAC funded research projectIA-88 Burgess, Lloyd W., 'Absorption-based Sensors,' Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 29, 10–15 (1995)IA-89 Anderson, Brian B., Lloyd W. Burgess, and Anatol M. Brodsky, 'Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy for Determination of Bulk Refractive Index and Absorbance,' Analytical Chemistry, 68:7, 1081–1088 (1996)IA-90 Anderson, Brian B., Anatol M. Brodsky, and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Threshold Effects in Light Scattering from a Binary Diffraction Grating,' Physical Review E., 54:1, 912–923 (1996) IA-91 Blair, Dianna S., Lloyd W. Burgess, and Anatol M. Brodsky, 'Evanescent Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensor for Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds in Water' Anal. Chem., 69:13, 2238 (1997)IA-92 Moore, Leslie K. David J. Veltkamp, Jose L. Cortina, Zhihao Lin, and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Miniature FlowProbeTM Chemical Sensor,' Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 38–39, 130-135 (1997)IA-93 Brodsky, Anatol M., Paul H. Shelley, Simonida R. Thurber, and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Low-Coherence Interferometry of Particles Distributed in a Dielectric Medium,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 14:9, 2263–2268 (1997)IA-94 J. Anand Subramony, Brian J. Marquardt, John W. Macklin and Bart Kahr, 'Reevaluation of Raman Spectra for KH2PO4 High Temperature Phases,' Chemistry of Materials, 11:5, 1312-1316 (1999)IA-95 S. Michael Angel, J. Chance Carter, Dimitra N. Stratis, Brian J. Marquardt, William E. Brewer, 'Some New Uses for Filtered Fiber-Optic Raman Probes: In Situ Drug Identification and In Situ and Remote Raman Imaging,' J. Raman Spectroscopy, 30, 795–805, (1999)IA-96 Marquardt, Brian J., Kevin P. Turney and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Raman Waveguide Detector for Low Analyte Concentrations in Liquid Samples,' SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 3860, Paper 31, September 19–23, 1999IA-97 Lovell, Scott, Brian J. Marquardt and Bart Kahr, 'Crystal Violet’s Shoulder,' J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 2241–2247 (1999)IA-98 Marquardt, Brian J., Paul G. Vahey, Robert E. Synovec and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'A Raman Waveguide Detector for Liquid Chromatography,' Analytical Chemistry, 71:21, 4808–4814 (1999)IA-99 Dable, Brian K., Karl S. Booksh, 'Selecting Significant Factors by the Noise Addition Method in Principal Component Analysis,' J. Chemometrics, 15, 591–613 (2001)IA-100 McCarthy, Kathryn L. and Michael J. McCarthy, 'Mixing in a Twin Screw Extruder,' CPAC Project Report (May 2000)IA-100A Brodsky, Anatol M., 'What is the Source of Light in Sonoluminescence?,' Modern Physics Letters B, 13:28, 1019–1024 (1999)IA-101 Tan, Hu-Wei and Steven D. Brown, 'Wavelet Hybrid Direct Standardization of Near-Infrared Multivariate Calibrations,' J. Chemometrics, 15, 647–663 (2002)IA-102 Ferre, Joan and Steven D. Brown, 'Reduction of Model Complexity by Orthogonalization with Respect to Non-Relevant Spectral Changes,' Applied Spectroscopy, 55, 708–714 (2001)IA-103 Mittermayr, C.R., H.W. Tan, and Steven D. Brown, 'Robust Calibration with Respect to Background Variation,' Applied Spectroscopy 55:7, 827–833 (2001)IA-104 Ferre, Joan, Steven D. Brown, and F. Xavier Rius, 'Improved Calculation of the Net Analyte Signal in Inverse Multivariate Calibration,' J. Chemometrics, 15, 537–553 (2001)IA-105 Kelly, M., W. Sweatt, S. Kemme, Anatol Brodsky, et al., 'Grating Light Reflection Spectroelectrochemistry for Detection of Trace Amounts of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water,' Sandia Report, SAWD 2000–1018, 1-36 (2000)IA-106 Brodsky, Anatol, Lloyd Burgess, and Alex Robinson, 'Cooperative Effects in Multibubble Sonoluminescence,' Ultrasonics, 39:2, (2001)IA-107 Smith, Sean A., Anatol Brodsky, Paul Vahey, and Lloyd Burgess, 'Nanoparticle Characterization in Nanoliter Volumes by Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy,' Analytical Chemistry, 72, 4428–4434 (2000)IA-108 Srinivasan, B., C.J. Primus, D. Bonvin, and N.L. Ricker, 'Run-to-Run Optimization via Control of Generalized Constraints,' submitted to Control Engineering Practice, 9(8), 911–919 (2001)IA-109 Brodsky, A.M. and L.W. Burgess, 'Theoretical Study of the Coherent Backscattering of Light in Disordered Media,' J. Modern Physics B, 17:3, 337–360 (2003)IA-110 Herbelin, A. and J. Ruzicka, 'Pulse Code Modulation — A Novel Approach to Gradient Based Flow Injection Techniques,' submitted to Czech Review, (2001)IA-111 Wu, C.H. and J. Ruzicka, 'Micro Sequential Injection: Environmental Monitoring of Nitrogen and Phosphate in Water Using Lab-on-Valve System Furnished with a Microcolumn,' Analyst, 126, 1947–1952 (2001)IA-112 Wu, C.H., L. Scampavia, J. Ruzicka, and B. Zamost, 'Micro Sequential Injection: Fermentation Monitoring of Ammonia, Glycerol, Glucose, and Free Iron using the Novel Lab-On-Valve System, Analyst, 126, 291–297 (2001)IA-113 McCarthy, K.L., M.J. McCarthy, and Y. Lee, 'Chemical Gelatinization of Starch Studied through Rheology and NMR,' CPAC Project Report (2001)IA-114 Tanaka, H., P.K. Dasgupta, and J. Huang, 'Continuous On-Line True Titrations by Feedback-Based Flow Ratiometry. The Principle of Compensating Errors,' Analytical Chemistry, 72, 4713–4720 (2000)IA-115 Brown, S.D. and K.L. Mello, 'Modified Hybrid Bayesian Network-Based Classification,' CPAC Project Report (2001)IA-116 McCarthy, K.L., M. J. McCarthy, Y. Lee, and J. Green, 'Mixing Platform: Effect of surfactants on mixing of an aqueous carbon black system,' meeting abstract preprint (2001)IA-117 Andreev, V.P. and G.D. Christian, 'Principles and Capabilities of Electroinjection Analysis,' Analytical Letters, 34, 1579 (2001)IA-118 Naimushin, A.N., Soelberg, S.D., Nguyen, D.K., Dunlap, L., Bartholomew, D., Elkind, J., Melendez, J., and Furlong, C.E., 'Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels by a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor,' Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 17, 573–584 (2002)IA-119 Tan, Hu-Wei and Steven D. Brown, 'Wavelet Analysis Applied to Removing Non-Constant, Varying Spectroscopic Background in Multivariate Calibration,' J. Chemometrics, 16, 228–240 (2002)IA-120 Naimushin, A.N., Soelberg, S.D., Bartholomew, D., Elkind, J., and Furlong, C.E., 'A Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Sensor System with Temperature Regulation,' Sensors and Actuators B, 96, 253–260 (2003)IA-121 Randall, Summer L., Anatol M. Brodsky, and Lloyd W. Burgess, 'Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry for Non-Destructive Process Measurements,' abstract for presentation at the 29th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE), July 14–19, 2002, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WashingtonIA-122 Furlong, Clement E., Soelberg, Scott D., Dunlap, Lucinda, Homola, Jiri, Yee, Sinclair S., Naimushin, Alexei N., 'Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors with Temperature Control for Detection of Biological and Chemical Agents, ' abstract for presentation at the Food & Drug Administration's AOAC meeting in Tacoma, Washington on June 20, 2002IA-123 Christian, Gary D., 'International Meeting Examines Analytical Curricula,' Analytical Chemistry, 74(7), 219A (2002)IA-124 Dasgupta, Purnendu, Surowiec, Kazimierz, and Berg, Jordan, 'Flow of Multiple Fluids in a Small Dimension,' Analytical Chemistry, 209A–213A (2002)IA-125 Lavine, Barry K. and Jerome Workman, Jr., 'Chemometrics,' Analytical Chemistry, 74(12), 2763-2770 (2002)IA-126 Feudale, Robert N., Nathaniel A. Woody, Huwei Tan, Anthony J. Myles, Steven D. Brown, and Joan Ferre, 'Transfer of Multivariate Calibration Models: A Review,' Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 64, 181–192 (2002)IA-127Greenwood, M.S., A. Brodsky, L. Burgess, and L.J. Bond, 'Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties,' ACS Symposium Series 943, Nuclear Waste Management, Paul W. Wang and Tiffany Zachry, Eds. 100–132 (2006)IA-128 Dable, Brian K., Karl S. Booksh, Richard Cavicchi, and Steven Semancik, 'Calibration of Microhotplate Conductometric Gas Sensors by Non-linear Multivariate Regression Methods,' submitted to Sensors and Actuators B, (2003)IA-129 Feudale, Robert N., Huwei Tan, and Steven D. Brown, 'Piecewise Orthogonal Signal Correction,' Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 63, 129–138 (2002)IA-130 Waiz, Saif, Bertha M. Cedillo, Sivakumar Jambunathan, Sofia G. Hohnholt, Purnendu K. Dasgupta, and Duane K. Wolcott, 'Dispersion in Open Tubular Reactors of Various Gometrics,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 428, 163–171 (2001)IA-131 Galanis, Sofia and Purnendu K. Dasgupta, 'Measurement of Parts per Million Levels of Potassium Hydroxide in Polyether Polyol Streams,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 429, 101–110 (2001)IA-132 Samanta, Gautam, Boring, C. Bradley, and Purnendu Dasgupta, 'Continuous Automated Measurement of Hexavalent Chromium in Airborne Particulate Matter,' Analytical Chemistry, 73, 2034–2040 (2001)IA-133 Toda, Kei, Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Jianzhong Li, and Gary A. Tarver, 'Fluorometric Field Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Atmospheric Hydrogen Sulfide,' Analytical Chemistry, 73, 5716–5724 (2001)IA-134 Su, Xiao-Li, Xiong Xingguo, Tim Dallas, Shubhra Gangopadhyay, Henryk Temkin, Zuejin Wang, Richard Walulu, Jianzhong Li, and Purnendu Dasgupta, 'A Microfabricated Amperometric Moisture Sensor,' Talanta, 56, 309–321 (2002)IA-135 Kephart, T. Scott and Purnendu K. Dasgupta, 'Superheated Water Eluent Capillary Liquid Chromatography,' Talanta, 56, 977–987 (2002)IA-136 Dasgupta, Purnendu K., Hideji Tanaka, and Kyoo Dong Jo, 'Continuous On-Line True Titrations by Feedback Based Flow Ratiometry: Application to Potentiometric Acid-Base Titrations,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 435, 289–297 (2001)IA-137 Tanikkul, Sumalee, Jaroon Jakmunee, Mongkon Rayanakorn, Kate Grudpan, Brian J. Marquardt, Gwen M. Gross, Bryan J. Prazen, Lloyd W. Burgess, Gary D. Christian, and Robert E. Synovec, 'Characterization and Use of a Raman Liquid Core Waveguide Sensor Using Preconcentration Principles,' Talanta, 59, 809–816 (2003)IA-138 Dable, Brian K., Karl S. Booksh, and Brian J. Marquardt, 'Rapid Multivariate Curve Resolution Applied to Near Real-Time Process Monitoring with HPLC/Raman Data,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 544(1–2), 71 (2005)IA-139 Nahorniak, Michelle L. and Karl S. Booksh, 'Optimizing the Implementation of the PARAFAC Method for Near-Real Time Calibration of Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Analysis,' work in progress (2002)IA-140 Wu, Chao-Hsiang, Louis Scampavia, and Jaromir Ruzicka, 'Microsequential Injection: Anion Separations using 'Lab-on-Valve' Coupled with Capillary Electrophoresis,' Analyst, 127, 898–905 (2002)IA-141 Workman, Jerome Jr., Mel Koch, and David J. Veltkamp, 'Process Analytical Chemistry,' Analytical Chemistry, 75(12), 2859–2876 (2003)IA-142 Naimushin, Alexei N., C.B. Spinelli, S.D. Soelberg, T. Mann, T. Chinowsky, P. Kauffman, S. Yee, and C.E. Furlong, 'Airborne Analyte Detection with an Aircraft-adapted Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Sensor System,' submitted to Sensors and Actuators (2003)IA-143 Tan, Hu-Wei and Steven D. Brown, 'Wavelet Multiscale Regression Analysis for Spectral Calibration Models,' J. Chemometrics, 17, 111–122 (2003)IA-144 Tan, Hu-Wei and Steven D. Brown, 'Multivariate Calibration of Spectral Data using Dual-Domain Regression Analysis,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 490, 291–301 (2003)IA-145 Woody, Nathaniel A. and Steven D. Brown, 'Hybrid Networks: Making the Classifier Robust to Missing Data,' J. Chemometrics, 17, 266–273 (2003)IA-146 Woody, Nathaniel A. and Steven D. Brown, 'Partial Least Squares Modeling of Continuous Nodes in Bayesian Networks,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 490, 355–363 (2003)IA-147 Feudale, Robert N., Hu-Wei Tan, and Steven D. Brown, 'Improved Piecewise Orthogonal Signal Correction,' Applied Spectroscopy, 57, 1201–1206 (2003)IA-148 Myles, A.J. and S.D. Brown, 'Induction of Decision Trees Using Fuzzy Partitions,' J. Chemometrics, 17, 531–536 (2003)IA-149 Woody, N.A., J.T. Mondick, and S.D. Brown, 'Collection of Classifiers,' J. Chemometrics, submitted for publication (2006) IA-150 Ferre, Joan and Steven D. Brown, 'Alternative Methods for Baseline Correction in Multivariate Calibration,' submitted as part of another paper (2002)IA-151 Woody, Nathaniel A. and Steven D. Brown, 'Selecting Wavelet Transform Scales for Multivariate Pattern Recognition,' in revision (2006)IA-152 Woody, Nathaniel A., Robert N. Feudale, Anthony J. Myles, and Steven D. Brown, 'Transfer of Multivariate Calibration Models Between Four Near-Infrared Spectrometers using Orthogonal Signal Correction,' Analytical Chemistry, 76, 2595–2600 (2004)IA-153 Myles, Anthony J., Robert N. Feudale, Nathaniel A. Woody, Yang Liu, and Steven D. Brown, 'An Introduction to Decision Tree Modeling,' J. Chemometrics, 18, 275–285 (2005) (Featured article)IA-154 Myles, Anthony J. and Steven D. Brown, 'Decision Pathway Modeling,' J. Chemometrics, 18, 286–293 (2004)IA-155 White, H.B. III, S.D. Brown, and M.V. Johnston, 'Contemporary Moral Problems in Chemistry: Impact of Peer Presentations on Awareness of Science and Society Issues,' J. Chem. Ed., 82, 1570–1576 (2005)IA-156 Wold, Jens P., Brian J. Marquardt, Brian K. Dable, Dave Robb, and Bjarne Hatlen, “Rapid Quantification of Carotenoids and Fat in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics,” App. Spectrosc., 58:4, 395–403 (2004)IA-157 Dable, Brian K. and Brian J. Marquardt, “Characterization and Quantitation of a Tertiary Mixture of Salts by Raman Spectroscopy in Simulated Hydrothermal Vent Fluid,' App. Spectrosc., 60(7), 773 (2006)IA-158 Liu, Yang, and Steven D. Brown, 'Wavelet Multiscale Regression From the Perspective of Data Fusion,' 380, 445–452 (2004)IA-159 Koch, Mel V., 'Optimizing the Impact of Developments in Micro-instrumentation on Process Analytical Technology: A Consortium Approach,' Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 1618–2642 (paper) 1618-1650 (online), (2005)IA-160 Feudale, R.N. and S.D. Brown, 'Application of Partial Least Squares Regression to the Automatic Detection of Chemical Vapors by Passive Infrared Remotely Sensed Image Data,' Proc. SPIE, 5269, 243–251 (2004)IA-161 Feudale, R.N., H.-W. Tan, and S.D. Brown, 'Wavelet Orthogonal Signal Correction,' J. Chemometrics, 19, 55–63 (2005)IA-162 Feudale, R.N. and S.D. Brown, ' An Inverse Model for Target Detection,' Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 77, 75–84 (2005)IA-163 Myles, A.J., T.A. Zimmerman, and S.D. Brown, 'Transfer of Multivariate Classification Models Between Laboratory and Process Near-Infrared Spectrometers for the Discrimination of Green Arabica and Robusta Coffee Beans,' Appl. Spectrosc., 60, 1198–1203 (2006)IA-164 Dogan, Nihan, Michael J. McCarthy, and Robert L. Powell, 'Comparison of In-Line Consistency Measurement of Tomato Concentrates using Ultrasonics and Capillary Methods,' J. Food Process Engineering, 25(6), 571–587 (2003)IA-165 Walton, J.H., J.S. de Ropp, M.V. Shutov, A.G. Goloshevsky, M.J. McCarthy, R.L. Smith, and S.D. Collins, 'A Micromachined Double-Tuned NMR Microprobe,' Analytical Chemistry, 75(19), 5030–5036 (2003)IA-166 Wang, Lu, Kathryn L. McCarthy, and Michael J. McCarthy, 'Effect of Temperature Gradient on Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry Measurement during Pipe Flow,' Food Research International, 37(6), 633–642 (2004)IA-167 Uludag, Yusuf, Robert L. Powell, and Michael J. McCarthy, 'Effects of Periodic Flow Fluctuations on Magnetic Resonance Flow Images,' AIChE Journal, 50(8), 1662–1671 (2004)IA-168 Choi, Young, U., Michael J. McCarthy, and Kathryn L. McCarthy, 'MRI for Process Analysis: Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder,' J. Process Analytical Chemistry, 9(2), 72–84 (2004)IA-169 McCarthy, Michael J., Jeffrey H. Walton, Jeffrey S. de Ropp, S. D. Collins, and M.J. McCarthy, 'Integration of Biaxial Planar Gradient Coils and an RF Microcoil for NMR Flow Imaging,' Meas. Sci. Technol., 16, 505–512 (2005)IA-170 Goloshevsky, Artem G., Jeffrey H. Walton, Jeffrey S. de Ropp, Scott D. Collins, Mikhail V. Shutov, and Michael J. McCarthy, 'Development of Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microcoils,' Review of Scientific Instruments, 76, 024101 (2005) - (Selected for January 15, 2005 issue of Virtual Journal of Applications of Superconductivity)IA-171 Choi, Young, Kathryn L. McCarthy, and Michael J. McCarthy, 'A MATLAB Graphical User Interface Program for Tomographic Viscometer Data Processing,' Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 47(1), 59–67 (2005)IA-172 Dogan, N., Michael J. McCarthy, R.L. Powell, 'Application of an In-Line Rheological Characterization Method to Chemically Modified and Native Corn Starch,' J. of Texture Studies, 36(3), 237–254 (2005)IA-173 Goloshevsky, A.G., J. H. Walton, M.V. Shutov, Ropp, S.D. Collins, M.J. McCarthy, 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Viscosity Measurements of Non-Newtonian Fluids using a Miniaturized RF Coil,' Measurement Science and Technology, 16(2), 513–518 (2005)IA-174 Dogan, N., Michael J. McCarthy, R.L. Powell, 'Measurement of Polymer Melt Rheology using Ultrasonics-Based In-Line Rheometry,' Measurement Science and Technology, 16(8), 1684–1690 (2005)IA-175 McCarthy, M.J., L. Wang, K.L. McCarthy, 'Ultrasound Properties,' Chapter 12, 567–609 in M.A. Rao, S.S.H. Rizvi, and A.S. Data (eds.) Engineering Properties of Foods 3rd Edition, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Florida, USA (2005)IA-176 McCarthy, M.J., P.N. Gambhir, A.G. Goloshevsky, ''NMR for Food Quality Control,' Chapter 4.7, 471–488 in S. Staph and S.I. Han (eds.) NMR Imagining in Chemical Engineering, Wiley-VH Verlag GmbH & Co., KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2005)IA-177 Marquardt, Brian J., and Jens Petter Wold, 'Raman Analysis of Fish: A Potential Method for Rapid Quality Screening,' Lebensmittel-Wissenchaft und-Technologie, 37(1), 1, 2004IA-178 Drew, S.M., J.E. Mann, B.J. Marquardt, and K.R. Mann, 'A Humidity Sensor Based on Vapoluminescent Platinum(II) Double Salt Materials,' Sensors and Actuators (B), B97(2–3), 307 (2004)IA-179 Touryan, L.A., M.J. Lochhead, B.J. Marquardt, V. Vogel, 'Sequential Layering of Inorganic Nanocomposites: Switching the Crystal Morphology using Trivalent Ions,' Nature Materials, 3(4), 239 (2004)IA-180 Koschwanez, J., M. Holl, B.J. Marquardt, J. Dragavon, L.W. Burgess, D. Meldrum, 'Identification of Budding Yeast Using a Fiber-Optic Imaging Bundle,' Rev. Sci. Instr., 75(5), 1363 (2004)IA-181 Battaglia, T.M., E.E. Dunn, M.D. Lilley, J. Holloway, B.K. Dable, B.J. Marquardt, and K.S. Booksh, 'Development of an In-Situ Fiber Optic Raman System to Monitor Hydrothermal Vents,' Analyst, 129(7), 602–606 (2005)IA-182 Koch, M.V. and B.J. Marquardt, ' Impact of Microinstrumentation on Process Analytical Technology (PAT). A Consortium Approach,' PAT — The Journal of Process Analytical Technology, 1(2), 12 (2004)IA-183 Nagarajan, V. and B.J. Marquardt, 'Spectroscopic Imaging of Protein Crystals in Crystallization Drops,' J. of Func. and Struct. Genomics, 6(23), 203 (2005)IA-184 Moe, A.E., S. Marx, N. Banani, M. Liu, B. Marquardt, and D.M. Wilson, 'Improvements in LED-Based Fluorescence Analysis Systems,' Sensors and Actuators B, 111–112, 230 (2005)IA-185 Afseth, N.K., V.H. Segtnan, B.J. Marquardt, and J.P. Wold, 'Raman and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Quantification of Fat Composition in a Complex Food Model System,' App. Spectrosc., 59(11), 1324 (2005)IA-186 Mann, K.R., J.R. Burney, K.A. McGee, and B.J. Marquardt, 'Crystalline Oxygen Sensors that Contain Ruthenium Complexes,' JACS, 129(49), 15092, 2007IA-187 Afseth, N.K., B.J. Marquardt, and J.P. Wold, 'A Chromatographic Approach for Fluorescence Rejection in Raman Analysis,' Appl. Spectrosc., 61(12), 1283 2007IA-188 Workman, J. Jr., M. Koch, B. lavine, and R Chrisman, 'Process Analytical Chemistry, 'Analytical Chemistry, 81/12, 4623–4643 (2009)IA-189 Workman, J. Jr., M. Koch, and D. Veltkamp, 'Process Analytical Chemistry,' Analytical Chemistry, 77, 3789–3806 (2005)IA-190 Hamad, M.L., S. Kailasam, A.M. Brodsky, R. Han, J.P. Higgins, D. Thomas, R.A. Reed, and L.W. Burgess, 'Monitoring of a Pharmaceutical Nanomilling Process Using Grating Light Reflection Spectroscopy,' Appl. Spectrosc., 59, 16–25 (2005)IA-191 Randall, S.L., A.M. Brodsky, and L.W. Burgess, 'Manifestation of Mie Resonances in Coherent Light Backscattering from Random Media,' Modern Physics Letters B, 19(4), 181–188 (2005)IA-192 Ruzicka, J, A.D. Carroll, and I. Lähdesmäki, 'Immobilization of Proteins on Agarose Beads, Monitored in Real Time by Bead Injection Spectroscopy,' The Analyst, 131, 799–808 (2006)IA-193 B.J. Marquardt, 'Applications of On-Line Raman Spectroscopy to Characterize and Optimize a Continuous Microreactor,' (Eds.) Koch, M.V., K.M. VandenBussche, and R.W. Chrisman, Micro Instrumentation for High Throughput Experimentation and Process Intensification – a Tool for PAT, Wiley-VCH (2007)IA-194 Bronk, B.V., Z.Z. Li, K.S. Booksh, and J. Cramer, 'Perturbation by UV Light for Rapid Classification of Biological Particles,' ECBC-TR-533 U.S. Army Research, January 2006IA-195 Boysworth, M.K., S. Banerji, D.R. Wilson, and K.S. Booksh, 'Generalization of Multivariate Optical Computating as a Method for Improving the Speed and Precision of Spectroscopic Analyses, submitted to J. Chemometrics (2007)IA-196 Stevens, R.C., S.D. Soelberg, B-T.L. Eberhart, S. Spencer, J.C. Wekell, T.M. Chinowsky, V.L. Trainer, and C.E. Furlong, 'Detection of the Toxin Domoic Acid from Clam Extracts Using a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor.' ScienceDirect-Harmful Algae, 6 166–174 (2007)IA-197 Chinowsky, T.M., S.D. Soelberg, P. Baker, N.R. Swanson, P. Kauffman, A. Mactutis, M.S. Grow, R. Atmar, S.S. Yee, and C.E. Furlong, 'Portable 24-Analyte Surface Plasmon Resonance Instruments for Rapid, Versatile Biodetection,' ScienceDirect-Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 22, 2268–2275 (2007)IA-198 Workman, J. Jr., M. Koch, and D. Veltkamp, 'Process Analytical Chemistry,' Analytical Chemistry, 79, 4345–4364 (2007)IA-199 Koch, M.V., K.M. VandenBussche, and R.W. Chrisman, (Eds.), Micro Instrumentation for High Throughput Experimentation and Process Intensification – a Tool for PAT, Wiley-VCH (2007)IA-200 Brodsky, A.M., G.T. Mitchell, S.L. Ziegler, and L.W. Burgess, 'Coherence Loss in Light Backscattering by Random Media with Nanoscale Nonuniformities,' Physical Review E, 75, 046605-1-17 (2007)IA-201 Edgar, J.S., G. Milne, Y. Zhao, C.P. Pabbati, D.S.W. Lim, and D.T. Chiu, 'Droplet Compartmentalization of Chemical Separations,' Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., (in press) 2009IA-202 McGee, K.A., B.J. Marquardt, and K.R. Mann, 'Concurrent Sensing of Benzene and Oxygen by a Crystalline Salt of Tris(5,6-dimethyl-1,10 phenanthroline) ruthenium(II),' Inorg. Chem., 47, 9143, 2008IA-203 Thompson, W.J. and B.J. Marquardt, 'Development of a Submersible Raman Instrument for In SItu Study of Chemistry at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents,' submitted to Deep Sea Research, December 2008IA-204 Branham, C.W. and B.J. Marquardt, 'Demonstration of a Fast and Stable Optical Dissolved Oxygen Sensor,' in preparation for Analytical Chemistry, May 2009IA-205 Thompson, W.J. and B.J. Marquardt, 'Investigation of Temperature and Pressure Response of Sapphire for Real-Time Raman Calibration,' in preparation for Applied Spectroscopy, Summer 2009IA-206 Stevens, R.C., S.D. Soelberg, S. Near, and C.E. Furlong, 'Detection of Cortisol in Saliva with a Flow-Filtered Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor System,' Analytical Chemistry, 80, 6747–6751 (Epub ahead of print Jul 26, 2008) PMID: 1865950 2008IA-207 Soelberg, S.D., R.C. Stevens, A.P. Limaye, and C.E. Furlong, 'Surface Plasmon Resonance Detection Using Antibody-Linked Magnetic Nanoparticles for Analyte Capture, Purification, Concentration, and Signal Amplification, Analytical Chemistry, 81, 2357–2363 Artckcle ASAP Publication Date (web): 12 February 2009 Downloaded from PMID: 19215065 2009IA-208 Furlong, C.E., S.D. Soelberg, P.E. Baker, S. Near, and R.C. Stevens, 'Antibody-Based Assays for Toxins in Fish and Shellfish,' Proceedings: Fourth Annual Meeting Oceans and Human Health Program, April 16–18, 2008, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HawaiiIA-209 Gambhir, P.N., Y.J. Choi, D.C. Slaughter, J.F. Thompson, M.J. McCarthy, 'Proton spin-spin relaxation time of peel and flesh of navel orange varieties exposed to freezing temperature.' J. Sci. Fd. and Ag., 85(14), 2482–2486, 2005IA-210 McCarthy, M.J., Y.J. Choi, A.G. Goloshevsky, J.S. de Ropp, S.D. Collins, and J.H. Walton, 'Measurement of fluid food viscosity using microfabricated radio frequency coils,' Journal of Texture Studies, 37(6), 607–619, 2006IA-211 Choi, Y.J., R.R. Milczarek, C.E. Fleck, T.C. Garvey, K.L. McCarthy and M.J. McCarthy, 'In-line monitoring of tomato concentrate physical properties during evaporation,' Journal of Food Process Engineering. 29(6), 6115–632, 2006IA-212 McCarthy, M.J., Y. J. Choi, and S. Pathaveerat, 'Measuring the internal quality of fruit,' R.S. Chaughule and S.S. Ranade (eds.) Looking into living things through Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Prism Publications, Mumbai, India, pp. 1–17, 2006IA-213 Tu, S.S., Y.J. Choi, M.J. McCarthy and K.L. McCarthy, 'Tomato quality evaluation by peak force and NMR spin-spin relaxation time,' Postharvest Biology and Technology, 44(2), 157–164, 2007IA-214 McCarthy, M.J. 2007. In: M.V. Koch, K.M. VandenBussche and R. W. Chrisman (eds). Micro Instrumentation, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. 241–245, 2007IA-215 Kim, S.M., R.R. Milczarek, and M.J. McCarthy, 'Fast Detection of Seeds and Freeze Damage of Mandarines Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging,' Modern Physics Letters B, 22(11), 941–946, 2008IA-216 McCarthy, M.J. and Y.J. Choi. 2008. Recent Advances in Nondestructive Testing with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In: J. Irudayaraj and C. Reh(eds). Nondestructive Testing of Food Quality, IFT Press Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 211–236, 2008IA-217 Milczarek, R.R. and M.J. McCarthy, 'Low Field MR Sensors for Fruit Inspection,' In: S.L. Codd and J.D. Seymour (eds). Magnetic Resonance Microscopy: Spatially Resolved NMR Techniques and Applications, Wiley-VCH, Darmstadt, pp. 289–301IA-218 Milczarek, R.R., M.E. Saltveit, T.C. Garvey and M.J. McCarthy, 'Assessment of tomato pericarp mechanical damage using multivariate analysis of magnetic resonance images,' Postharvest Biology and Technology, 52,189–195, 2009IA-219 Ni, W., S.D. Brown, and R. Man, 'Wavelet Orthogonal Signal Correction-Based Discriminant Analysis,' Analytical Chemistry, 81/21, 8962–8967 (2009)IA-220 Ni, W., S.D. Brown, and R. Man, 'Data Fusion in Multivariate Calibration Transfer,' Analytica Chimica Acta, 661, 133–142 (2010)IA-221 Brown, S.D. and A.J. Myles, 'Decision Tree Modeling in Classification' in Brown, S., R. Tauler, and R. Walczak (eds.) Comprehensive Chemometrics, 3, 541–569 Oxford: Elsevier (2009)IA-222 Brown, S. D., 'Transfer of Multivariate Calibration Models,' in Brown, S., R. Tauler, and R. Walczak (eds.) Comprehensive Chemometrics, 3, 541–569 Oxford: Elsevier (2009)IA-223 Ni, W., S.D. Brown, and R. Man, 'The Relationship between net Analyte Signal/Preprocessing and Orthogonal Signal Correction Algorithms,' Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 98, 97–107 (2009)IA-224 Ni, W., S.D. Brown, and R. Man, 'Stacked Partial Least Squares Regression Analysis for Spectral Calibration and prediction,' Journal of Chemometrics, 23, 505–517 (2009) (Published online in Wiley InterScience 28 May 2009)IA-225 Brodsky, A.M., 'Control of Phase Transition Dynamics in Media with Nanoscale Nonuniformities by Coherence loss Spectroscopy,' Journal of Optics, 12, 1–5 (2010)IA-226 Smith, C.S., C.W. Branham, B.J. Marquardt, and K.R. Mann, 'Oxygen Gas Sensing by Luminescence Quenching in Crystals of Cu(xantphos)(phen) Complexes,' Journal of American Chemical Society (JACS), 132, 14079–14085 (2010)IA-227 Pierce, K.M., J.C. Hoggard, R.E. Mohler, and R.E. Synovec, 'Recent Advancements in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Separations with Chemometrics,' Journal of Chromatography A, 1184/1–2, 341-352 (14 March 2008 online)IA-228 Stevens, R.C., S.M. Suzuki, T.B. Cole, S.S. Park, R.J. Richter, C.E. Furlong, 'Engineered recombinant human paraoxonase 1 (rHuPON1) purified from Escherichia coli protects against organophosphate poisoning,' Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(35):12780-4. Epub 2008 Aug 18, 2008. See also commentary:Chambers JE, PON1 multitasks to protect health. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(35): 1239–1240 (2008) doi/10.1073/pnas.0807062105. PMCID:PMC2529123IA-229 Richter, RJ, G.P. Jarvik, C.E. Furlong, 'Determination of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Status without the Use of Toxic Organophosphate Substrates,' Circ Cardiovasc Genet 1:147–152 2008 See also editorial: Loscalzo J. Paraoxonase and coronary heart disease risk - language misleads, linkage misinforms, function clarifies. DOI: 101161/CIRCGENETICS.108837179 2008IA-230 McCarthy, K.L. and M.J. McCarthy, 'Relationship Between In-Line Viscosity and Bostwick Measurement During Ketchup Production,'  Journal of Food Science, 74 (6)E291–E297 2009IA-231 Garcia, S, J.H. Walton, B. Armstrong, S. Han, and M.J. McCarthy, 'L-band Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization,' Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 203(1):138–143 2010 Senior Principal Engineer, APL-UWProfessor, Electrical Engineering, University of Washington206-685-0112206-669-5163 (cell)marquardt@apl.washington.eduWest campus location of The Applied Physics Laboratory-UW (Benjamin Hall Interdisciplinary Research Building and Henderson Hall)


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