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keywords:5AT, 5AT project, 5AT group, advanced steam, enhancing performance, improving reliability, reducing costs, controlling emissions, modern steam locomotive, modern steam engine, lempor
description:5AT Group aims to ensure the future of steam on the rail network, via mods to increase locomotive performance & reliability, reduce both carbon emissions and minimize operating & maintenance costs.
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The 5AT Group - Steaming Ahead with Advanced Technology

Enhancing Performance -- Improving Reliability -- Reducing Costs -- Controlling Emissions

- Home -HomeProject Suspension AnnouncementNews5AT WebsiteWebsite Updates5AT Group -5AT GroupProject LeadersJohn HindPaul HibberdMike HorneJohn DuncanRichard ColebyJamie KeyteIain JackChris NewmanRobin BarnesAlan FozardAcknowledgementsDavid SmithBrian McCammonMalcolm CluettAllan WallaceDavid PawsonBob BramsonDavid WardMartyn BanePaul CatchpoleTerry FlynnDominic WellsTechnical Terms -Steam Loco DefinitionsThermal EfficiencyPower and Indicator DiagramsPower-to-Weight RatioEquivalent EvaporationSpecific Steam ConsumptionGrate Limit and Boiler EfficiencyFront-End LimitTractive EffortAdhesionResistanceSimple/CompoundMotionValves, Valve Gear etcReuleaux DiagramSnifting, Drifting, Bypass and Herdner ValvesBalancing Hammer BlowCombustion AirSuperheatingSteam ChestClearance VolumeCondensation/Wall EffectsTriangular LossesIncomplete ExpansionExhaustsBrakesThermodynamicsThermodynamic EquationsThermodynamic DefinitionsEnthalpyEntropyMollier Diagrams Steam TablesThermodynamic AnomaliesModern Steam -IntroductionAndré ChapelonLivio Dante PortaPhil GirdlestonePresent Day Steam SpecialistsDavid WardaleRoger WallerShaun McMahonNigel DayIan GaylorManuel Ramos: Ian ScreetonPrinciples of Modern SteamSecond Generation SteamGas Producer Combustion System (GPCS)Combustion Air PreheatingPortas Water TreatmentFeedwater HeatingSteam Press TempLow Heat LossesSteam TightnessLong Strokes and High Rotation RatesLubrication and TribologyEnhanced Valve EventsInternal StreamliningPiston Valve DesignPiston Valve Rod Packing Compound ExpansionThe α CoefficientExhaust SystemsKordinaAdvanced AdhesionDrifting TechniquesEngine-Tender BufferingFranklin WedgesModernising OptionsModernising OptionsModernising ApplicationsBoosting Loco PerformanceReducing Fuel Consumption and Carbon EmissionsReducing Maintenance CostsImproving ReliabilityModern Steam MiscellanyThe Red DevilRed Devil Audio RecordingsSAR Class 19D No 2644Rio Turbio RailwayPortas Locomotive No 1802DLM 52-8055DLM Rack TanksSS MontreuxFCAF Garratt No 2Kirklees Light RailwayBure Valley RailwayReades ContributionsBrian GregsonWater Tube BoilersEngineering -IntroductionFundamental Design 5AT FDCsNotes on FDC 1Notes on FDC 4Notes on FDC 8Notes on FDC 9Notes on FDC 11Notes on FDC 12Notes on FDC 13Notes on FDC 18Wardales SummaryDetail DesignEngineering HelpScale of theTaskDrawingsResearch Opportunities- The 5AT Project -5AT Project Summary5AT Project AimsThe 5AT - IntroductionDesign Philosophy5AT Specifications5AT PerformanceCalculated PerformanceComputer-SimulationPerformance Examples 5AT Features Thermal EfficiencyPower-to-Weight RatioAdhesion SandingReliabilityOperating CostsMaintenance CostsRoute AvailabilityFuel ConsumptionOperating RangeValves and SteamchestFeedwater Heating5AT vs. 5MT5AT and the EnvironmentEmissionsFuels5AT OptionsOptional Strategies8AT 2-8-08ATT 2-8-4TLonger Term Options5AT Feasibility StudyPromotionPromoting the 5ATPresentationsPublished Articles and Letters1998 - 20012002 - presentOverseas ArticlesNon Railway PressArt Work5AT ModelsLauras 5AT AnimationLivery Options- FAQs -FAQ SummaryGeneral QuestionsMore Innovation? Cutting MetalLoco turning?Why a 4-6-0?Why not a 4-8-0 ?Larger driving wheels?200 km/h Speed ApprovalNetwork Rail Approvals?Performance Questions5AT performance exaggerated?:Reliability Thermal EfficiencyMotion, Balancing, Valve GearWhy Walschaerts valve gear ?Why not Baker Valve Gear?Why not British Caprotti?Why not Variable Lead?Piston vs. Caprotti ValvesPiston speed too high?Why not 3 cylinders? Hammer Blow?Why Piston Tail Rods not used?Boiler QuestionsBoiler large enough?Boiler pressure too high?Why not higher pressure? Feedwater HeatingSteam Flow and ExhaustWhy not a compound?Steam PipesExhaust SystemsSteam Jacket to Cylinders?Use of Exhaust LapWardale - Koopmans Correspondence Fuel QuestionsWhat is Gas Oil?Why not Coal Fuel? What about Bio-Mass Fuel?Excess Combustion Air Technical Specs- References -References - GeneralPortas PapersWardale LettersSimulation SoftwareProf. Bill Halls SoftwareSTEAM Locomotive SimulatorAllan Wallaces SoftwareBooks and PublicationsThe 5AT FDCsRed Devil Book - a ReviewAdvanced Steam Loco DevelopmentLa Locomotive a VapeurChapelon - by Col. RogersThe Fire Burns Much Better ..Camels and CadillacsHow a Steam Loco WorksBulleid and the Turf BurnerLocomotive Boilers by Alan HaighFowlers FuryHush-Hush - The Story of LNER 10000 Compound Locomotives Broader than BroadPapersPortas PapersModern Steam PapersSteam vs. Diesel DebatesFuels and EmissionsPresentations on Modern SteamAudio-visuals SAR RecordingsManufacturers and OperatorsWebsite LinksArticles and Letters2006-10 Articles and Letters2004/5 Articles and Letters2003 Articles and Letters2002 Articles and Letters2000/1 Articles and Letters1998/9 Articles and Letters5AT Project ArchivesArchives - GeneralProject TimelinePhotosNews BulletinsNewsletters- Sales -5AT FDCs Quick Links 5AT GroupPrinciples of Modern SteamModernising Options
The 5AT ProjectRed Devil Sales Recently Updated People who led the 5AT Project
The 5AT Group
Phil Girdlestone 1954 - 2016
Technical Terms and Definitions relating to Steam Locomotives
The Red Devil and Other Tales from the Age of Steam by David Wardale
More Updates News Updates


May 13, 2015 5AT Fundamental Design Calcs available in print Jan 7, 2015 Advanced Steam Traction website launched May 6, 2014 Clan Improvement Study Commences May 2, 2014 Wardales 2644 vandalised Feb 28, 2014 Clan Project invites 5AT Group to conduct Feasibility Study

David Wardale's complete
5AT Fundamental Design Calculations

are now available in printed format and are available for purchase through this website.
Please go to the "Sales Page"for further information




As noted elsewhere on this website, since the 5AT Project was suspended in 2012, the members of the 5AT team have regrouped under the banner of The Advanced Steam Traction Trust.

The 5AT Project website remains in place to provide information on the concepts and technology on which the 5AT design was based.

"No other product of man's mind has ever exercised such a compelling hold upon the public's imagination as the steam locomotive. No other machine in its day has been a more faithful friend to mankind, nor has contributed more to the growth of industry in this, the land of its birth and indeed throughout the whole world. Those who have lived in the steam age of railways will carry the most nostalgic memories right to the end.."
The words of R F Hanks, Chairman of the Western Area Board of British Railways at a ceremony in Swindon Works on 18th March 1960, marking the end of steam locomotive construction in the UK with the completion and naming of 9F 2-10-0 No 92220 "Evening Star".

The 5AT Project

Mr Hanks' words (above) are as true today as they were in 1960, though the nostalgia and passion that the steam locomotive generates has extended far wider, and for far longer, than he could have imagined. Most preserved steam operated railways in the UK continue to attract record numbers of visitors each year, and 2009 witnessed widespread public interest and enthusiasm when "Tornado", the first main line steam locomotive to be built in the UK since "Evening Star", made its public debut on the nation's railways.

The 5AT Project aimed to go a step further, namely to build the first new steam locomotive incorporating all the proven technical advances that have been developed since 1960 in order to generate the power, speed, range and reliability that may one day be needed to maintain an ongoing presence for steam traction on the main line rail network of the future.

The 5AT Project was suspended in 2012 due to lack of financial support, however the 5AT Group which spawned from it, is now pursuing new goals.

The 5AT Group

The 10 years spent by the 5AT Group in the planning and promotion of the 5AT Project have not been in vain.  Indeed, the group is continuing in the pursuit of its goal of maintaining a future presence for steam traction on main and heritage rail lines, through the application of technical improvements that will increase locomotive performance and reliability, reduce both carbon and spark emissions, and minimize operating and maintenance costs.

The 5AT Group can help locomotive owners or new build groups, whether standard or narrow gauge by making them

more efficient, less polluting, cheaper to run and above all, more reliable.

The 5AT Group aims to preserve for future generations the expertise and experience of pioneers of Modern Steam, such André Chapelon, Livio Dante Porta and David Wardale.

This website outlines some of the Modernising Options that the 5AT Group can make available to locomotive owners and builders.  It explains the Principles of Modern Steam and providing examples of what can be achieved (see Modern Steam Miscellany).




5AT Project Legacy

The 5AT Project, proposed by David Wardale in the concluding pages of his seminal book "The Red Devil and Other Tales from the Age of Steam", aimed to build the first new steam locomotive incorporating all the proven technical advances developed since the 1960s, and was aimed at delivering the level of range, power, speed and reliability that will one day be needed to maintain  steam on the 21st Century main line railway.

The 5AT Project failed to attract the £11 million funding that was needed to design and construct the locomotive and its abandonment was publically announced in early 2012.

The Project Feasibility Study, completed in 2010, included a complete set of Fundamental Design Calculations by David Wardale which spell out the design calculations for the development of virtually any new Modern Steam locomotive design.  The calculations can be adapted to “modernise” existing locomotives and recreations of old designs.  The Fundamental Design Calculations, plus the use of 21st Century Design Tools and Techniques are the foundation of the Trust’s capability to offer its services to the heritage railways, mainline steam locomotives and new-build steam projects.

The 5AT Group is made up of a team of engineers and other professionals with complementary skills in steam locomotive technology and 21st Century design tools and techniques.

Features of the 5AT included:Maximum continuous operating speed of 180 km/h (113 mph) to keep up with modern rail traffic; and a maximum design speed of 200 km/h (125 mph);High power to weight ratio: 1890 kW (2535 hp) at the drawbar (indicated power 2380 kW or 3200 hp) at 113 km/h (70 mph) from an 80 tonne locomotive;Optimised adhesion to control slipping;High thermal efficiency (for steam traction) of approximately 14%;Wide route availability - 20 tonne axle load;Simplicity, reliability, easy maintenance and servicing;High capacity tender to provide extended range;Low fuel and water consumption (see note below);Low operating costs;Low maintenance costs;Conformance to latest safety regulations;Good crew conditions;Gas-oil fuel (similar to diesel) with an option for a coal fired version.

The 5AT's fuel and water ranges are calculated to be 925 km (570 miles) and 610 km (380 miles) respectively under representative average service conditions, and 552 km (345 miles) and 367 km (230 miles) respectively at maximum drawbar power - i.e. at 1890 kW (2535 hp) and 113 km/h (70 mph). See Operating Range page.



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5AT Group aims to ensure the future of steam on the rail network, via mods to increase locomotive performance & reliability, reduce both carbon emissions and minimize operating & maintenance costs.

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