PEPCK, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) Epilepsy and the Ketogenic Diet

Web Name: PEPCK, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) Epilepsy and the Ketogenic Diet






Update:New information about branched chain amino acids and epilepsy.PEPCK and its physiological rolesThis site is dedicated to the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and its physiological role in different tissues, including recent work of mine linking it to the Ketogenic Diet as treatment for epilepsy. PEPCK is found in many tissues throughout the body, and catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate to phosophoenol pyruvate. In the process, one molecule of GTP is converted to GDP and a phosphate group is transferred to oxaloacetate. There is also the release of one molecule of carbon dioxide. PEPCK has been most intensely studied in the liver, where it catalyzes a critical step in the synthesis of glucose from protein amino acids and other substrates. This pathway is called gluconeogenesis and helps maintain blood glucose levels when they fall. Read more about gluconeogenesis here.Glucose production from the liver is highly regulated, and PEPCK is very important in controlling gluconeogenesis. The enzymatic activity of PEPCK in a cell is related to the amount of protein present and is controlled by the transcription of messenger RNA from the PEPCK gene. Several hormones influence PEPCK transcription. Insulin lowers the amount of PEPCK mRNA and protein; and glucgon, glucocorticoids as well as retinoic acid will increase the levels of PEPCK expression. Read about the molecular biology of PEPCK and its transcriptional regulation here.Excess glucose production from the liver is one of the complications seen in people with type-II diabetes(non-insulin dependent diabetes). One of the critical steps in the overproduction of glucose in these patients is that insulin is no longer able to reduce PEPCK levels when blood glucose levels are normal or higher. Read about PEPCK and diabetes here.A second role for PEPCK in adipose tissue is that of glyceroneogenesis. This refers to the production of a glycerol molecule, and is very important for the synthesis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids in to the blood stream. This pathway has been exploited clinically. Increasing the levels of PEPCK in fat tissues is used to reduce blood triglycerides in patients with hypertriglycemia. Read more about glyceroneogenesis and triglycerides here.Besides its role in gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis, PEPCK has a number of other physiological roles. One of these roles is to remove excess metabolites from the Citric acid cycle, also know as the Kreb's cycle or the Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Certain amino acids are broken down for energy in a pathway containing PEPCK by the processes of anaplerosis and cataplerosis. Read more about anaplerosis and cataplerosis here. Read more about branched chain amino acids and epilepsy here.PEPCK is also expressed in the brain, however its physiological role in neurons is an enigma. Recent work that I have done at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shed some light on the role of PEPCK in the CNS. While working on a treatment for epilepsy called the Ketogenic Diet, I discovered that increasing the flux of substrate through PEPCK had a very powerful anti-epileptic effect. These data have led me to propose a model where PEPCK plays a critical role in the Ketogenic Diet, and is a new target for anti-epileptic drug discovery. Read about PEPCK and epilepsy here. Very interestingly, the mechansim by which PEPCK reduces epileptiform activity in the brain appears to be different than its roles in other tissues. The other physiological roles of PEPCK rely on changing the concentrations of the metabolic substrate oxalaoacetate, or the concentration of the reaction product PEP. In contrast,my data suggests that PEPCK regulatates epileptiform activity by altering the cellular concentrations of GTP, GDP or the ratio of the two. This may act by reducing high frequency synaptic transmission by limiting the availability of synpatic vescicles for about GTP and synaptic transmission hereread about synaptic transmission and glycolysis here?PEPCK homeGluconeogenesisGlyceroneogenesisCataplerosis anaplerosis Triheptanoin oilPEPCK DiabetesTranscriptionGTP EpilepsyBranched chain amino acids (BCAA's) and the Ketogenic DietGlycoysisKetogenic Diet 2-DGDataLinksContact MeChinchilla CamDigi-KittySteve Kriegler'sThe Nibelungenliedin EnglishCopyright 2011 Steve KrieglerMs.B.


<<< Thank you for your visit >>>

The enzyme PEPCK has a very powerful effect on epileptic electrical activity, and may be the mechanism of action of the Ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy

Websites to related :
Home - Prescriptiongiant

  PrescriptionGiant is a FREE prescription savings program that can save you up to 75% on your prescriptions with or without insurance! PrescriptionGia

Great Dad - Parenting Informatio

  This is where your newsletters will be delivered to and where will contact you with your new account information. New Dads: 5 Keys to a

Welcome to - T is best source of Tumors relared info on planet. @SumitK #bonetumor is best source of Tumors relared info on planet. @

喬福泡綿股份有限公司Chiao Fu Ent


Music | Sordide

  0 || artistsMenu.linkedNonLabelMemberBands().length > 1) }"> Sorry, Bandcamp no longer supports the version of Internet Explorer that you're using (7.

Odonata Central

  Welcome to Odonata Central This citizen science web site site is focused on expanding our understanding of the distribution, biogeography, biodiversit

The Bella Moss Foundation |

  UK Registered Charity 1122246 This website would not be possible without the kind help of Tony Martin of the “AV Martin Charitable Foundation” Watch

poetry of China | poetry of Chin

  The Shih Ching , usually translated as either The Book of Songs or the Classic of Poetry, is the first great collection of Chinese poetry. Tradition s

Amaravati: Abode of Amritas

  fuka 'large shark' has nothing to do with the Chinesemorpheme 'dried fish' (Mandarin xiǎng, Cantonese soeng2,etc.) that 鱶 originally represented. Wh

Research | Bournemouth Universit

  ESRC Festival of Social Science: 7 - 15 November Find out more about our eventsOur research shapes and changes the world around us, providing solution


Hot Websites